[86] have discovered the ability of pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene and the application of edible coatings (xanthan, sodium alginate, or gellan) to extend the shelf life of precut jackfruit up to 12 days, while preserving the original quality attributes when stored at 5°C. Jackfruit contains vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, potassium, iron, sodium, zinc, and niacin, among many other nutrients. “Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) is a rich source of several high-value compounds with potential beneficial physiological activities” [64]. Usually jackfruit seeds are consumed in boiled or roasted form, but most of the jackfruit seeds are discarded [89]. They are surrounded by the flesh and enclosed in a white aril surrounding a thin brown spermoderm, which covers the fleshy white cotyledon. Copyright © 2019 R. A. S. N. Ranasinghe et al. Jagadeesh et al. There are large number of bulbs inside the fruit, which have high nutritional value. Several studies including Hossain [27]; Saha et al. They are edible and consumed after boiling, cooking with vegetables or grinding and adding to flour. Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., which is commonly known as jackfruit is a tropical climacteric fruit, belonging to Moraceae family, is native to Western Ghats of India and common in Asia, Africa, and some regions in South America. It also enhances the crop’s potential both locally and internationally through reducing the packaging and transportation costs, maintaining the quality and the freshness, and minimizing the quarantine barriers in some importing countries [59, 92]. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. endobj <> Soong and P. J. Barlow, “Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of selected fruit seeds,”, M. R. Fernando, S. M. D. N. Wickramasinghe, M. I. Thabrew, P. L. Ariyananda, and E. H. Karunanayake, “Effect of, R. M. Lavker, “Cutaneous aging: chronologic versus photoaging,” in, S. Babitha, C. Sandhya, and A. Pandey, “Natural food colorants,”, S.-C. Fang, C.-L. Hsu, and G.-C. Different maturity stages of jackfruit flesh are consumed fresh or as canned slices, fruit juice, and dried chips. Therefore, it is practiced to harvest the fruit when it is firm and in a semiripen condition before ripening on the tree and then store until becoming soft and fit for processing [25]. (2)Fruit colour changes from green to green yellowish. Health benefits of jackfruit. Several studies have successfully utilized jackfruit seed as a source of carbon for the extracellular production of pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans MTCC2195 [102] and polyhydroxybutyrate using Bacillus sphaericus NCIM 5149 [103]. In recent years, the interest towards the utilization of alternative sources of starch in industrial applications is being increased. Jackfruits have 0.64 g fat per 100g. In the firm variety, the perianth remains firm even at full ripeness, while in the soft variety the perianths become soft and fleshy on ripening [2]. In Coronel [46], it has been reported that the fiber content of immature and ripe jackfruit is 2.6% and 0.8%, respectively. Jackfruit is also a good source of vitamin C, which protects the skin from the damage that occurs as a consequence of the natural aging process and prolonged exposure to sun [73]. Depending on the variety, the colour of the bulb can be cream, white, light yellow, yellow, deep yellow, lemon yellow light saffron, saffron, deep saffron, or orange [8]. Some studies have reported variations in the starch, total sugar, and reducing sugar contents of soft and firm types [2, 32]. Hence, a significant amount of jackfruit waste is discarded [90], creating serious waste disposal and environmental problems [91]. According to one study, a jackfruit meal has a glycemic index value of 75 (1). Studies including Arung et al. The jackfruit seeds contain around 55% moisture content, thereby lessening the possibility of being kept for a long time [88]. endobj The root extracts are used traditionally to treat asthma, fever and diarrhea. A. Aziz, C. P. Ju, and C. C. Cheen, “Classification of Artocarpus heterophyflus L. (Jackfruit) Maturity Using Disposable Screen-Printed Strips Based on Chemomeuic Analysis,”, M. A. Rahman, N. Nahar, A. Jabbar Mian, and M. Mosihuzzaman, “Variation of carbohydrate composition of two forms of fruit from jack tree (. Some studies have also reported the anti-inflammatory effects of isolated bioactive compounds from the fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus [75]. Fermentation of surplus or over-ripe jackfruit for the production of wine would be an interesting alternative for the effective utilization of the fruit. Many parts of the plant, including the bark, roots, leaves, and fruits, are known for their medicinal properties in traditional and folk medicine [6, 62, 63]. endobj [83] have taken an attempt for the development of products such as jam, jelly, pickle, and squash by processing different parts of jackfruit and to assess their nutritional quality. Fruit should be harvested by cutting from the stalk using sharp bladed equipment. Jackfruit is rich in nutrients including carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. In ripe fruits, the spoilage is commonly observed in localized pockets of the large fruit [19, 84]. Ashok et al. Jackfruit is a rich source of potassium, with 303 mg found in 100 g of jackfruit. [113] have conducted a study on development of a natural photo-sensitizer from jackfruit rags for dye sensitized solar cells, with the aim of exploring ways for upcycling the waste materials for energy harvesting. And jackfruit seeds contain less than 1 gram of fat. (a) Jackfruit tree with the fruits of different sizes; (b) jackfruit tree with the fruits in different stages of fruiting; (c) the jackfruit with conical carpel apices; (d) raw jackfruit pieces used for curries; (e) the interior of a ripe jackfruit with the seed; (f) the ripe eatable flesh of jackfruit; and (g) the jackfruit seed (source: [. Jackfruit Nutritional Value Per 100g. B. Abidi, R. G. Upadhyay, and A. Singh, “Proximate composition of jack fruit seeds,”, A. Mukprasirt and K. Sajjaanantakul, “Physico-chemical properties of flour and starch from jackfruit seeds (. The several parts of jack tree including fruits, leaves, and barks have been extensively used in traditional medicine due to its anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and hypoglycemic effects. [72], the hot water extract of jackfruit leaves significantly improved glucose tolerance in the normal subjects and the diabetic patients when investigated at oral doses equivalent to 20 g/kg. The flesh of ripe jackfruit contains 1.9 g proteins per 100g. S. Singh, S. Krishnamurthi, and S. Katyal, M. S. Baliga, A. R. Shivashankara, R. Haniadka, J. Dsouza, and H. P. Bhat, “Phytochemistry, nutritional and pharmacological properties of, S. L. Jagadeesh, B. S. Reddy, G. S. K. Swamy, K. Gorbal, L. Hegde, and G. S. V. Raghavan, “Chemical composition of jackfruit (, Y. 15 0 obj In Sri Lanka, several jackfruit cultivars such as ‘Vela’, ‘Varaka (Waraka)’, ‘Peniwaraka’, ‘Kuruwaraka’, Singapore, or the Ceylon Jack are distributed [6]. <> The water and oil absorption capacities of jackfruit seed flour have found to be 200% and 90%, respectively, which provide its desirable functional properties for food industrial applications [88]. The firm variety is considered to be of high quality [14]. [28]; and Jagadeesh et al. The protein concentration of the jackfruit seeds may vary from 5.3 to 6.8% [41]. Nair et al. Jackfruit is the world’s largest tree-borne fruit that weighs from nearly 3 KG to 36 KG. The tree grows rapidly in early years, up to 1.5 m/year (5 ft/year) in height, slowing to about 0.5 m/year (20 in/year) as the tree reaches maturity [12]. The seeds are also good sources of thiamine and riboflavin. <> Covered by flesh, jackfruit seeds are 2 to 3 cm long and light brown in colour. [48]; Chandrika et al. According to the study, the esters, which impart the desired flavour to the fruit, are found in high concentrations in jackfruit. <> Furthermore, advanced processing technologies including freeze-drying, vacuum frying and cryogenic freezing have been used to develop new jackfruit-based food products [19, 59]. The complete fruit development process takes about three to seven months from the pollination, varying in different countries. A. Ulloa, J. E. Urías-Silvas et al., “Effect of high-intensity ultrasound on the technofunctional properties and structure of jackfruit (, R. Begum, M. Aziz, M. Uddin, and Y. Yusof, “Characterization of Jackfruit (, D. Govindaraj, M. Rajan, A. The extracted pectin was of low quality with regard to its poor solubility and high ash content, compared to commercial pectin, raising the need for more advanced researches focusing on production of high-quality pectin from jackfruit waste with improved solubility. Further he stated that every 100 g of ripe flakes contains 287-323 mg potassium, 30.0-73.2 mg calcium, and 11-19 g carbohydrates. Jacktree grows in warm and moist regions [4, 10]. Further, it is known that the seeds of jackfruit are loaded with a good source of iron. 8 0 obj They are often deeply lobed when juvenile on young shoots. Elevation of blood LDL: HDL ratio is one of the major risk factors for the development of coronary heart diseases [66]. Jackfruit is rich in vitamin C [44]. [97] have reported a higher amylose content (~44%) in jackfruit seed starch, which were cultivated in Vietnam. [98] have found jackfruit starch to be acid-resistance in solution and paste form. <> Due to all these numerous health benefits the consumption of jackfruit flesh has increased in recent years [77]. Jacktree is used for its durable timber, which acquire reddish orange colour when aging. Notably more gamma-tocopherol per 100g.Gamma-tocopherol is one of the chemical compounds of the vitamin E group, found in soybeans and corn oil. According to Wongsa and Zamaluddien [53], total phenolic content in jackfruit is 0.36 mg GAE/g DW (milligrams of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight). [64] state that the antioxidant activities of jackfruit flesh extracts are correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoids content. Samaddar [21] has recorded that the flakes of ripe jackfruits are high in nutritive value. Trindade et al. There are only a few recent studies that have focused on the extending shelf life of jackfruit and value addition of jackfruit waste by converting them to different products and renewable energy sources. Seeds, dried, sunflower seed kernels Select serving size: 100 g 1 cup, with hulls, edible yield = 46 g 1 cup = 140 g 1 g 1 ounce = 28.3495 g 1 pound = 453.592 g 1 kg = 1000 g custom g custom oz Jackfruit facts Hence, several studies have focused on extraction of pectin from jackfruit peel by the use of more advanced techniques including ultrasound assisted extraction [90] and ultrasonic-microwave assisted extraction [82], which were able to result in higher pectin yield compared to conventional methods. People eat the fruit and seeds of jackfruit tree as food or as medicine. Benefits of jackfruit seeds. Jagtap et al. Calories: jackfruit - 55% more than papaya. 97/74, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Barten, 1997. 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