R. L. Rawat, in his History of Indian Education, suggests that India will forever be indebted to the missionarie… The missionary impact on education would have far-reaching consequences, as their creation of a weak basis of education would slow down the political and educational development of many former colonies in Africa. Missionaries were no doubt also aware that Africans “came to associate European technological achievement with Western education” (Bassey 1991:45) and therefore offered Western education as a means to attract Africans of this belief and then convert them. Thus, because of the motive of proselytization, unqualified teachers, and inter-denominational rivalry, missions frequently provided poor education. Education is a high priority for many grantmakers but opportunities to use impact investing tools are less familiar to many foundation leaders today. /Length 2395 In my Ethnic Studies class I need to write a persuasive speech in order to convince people that missionaries are, overall, a negative influence. David Livingstone was a Scottish … Missionaries also trained manpower through the introduction of farming education which was used by colonialists to exploit the land. The legacy of Christian missionaries lives up to this day. Education Decreases Poverty. That missionaries used the vernacular illustrates the fact that missionaries were principally evangelists, and that they considered their other roles, including their role as educators, as less important. Even when governments discouraged domestic industries, graduates of vocational schools contributed to the economy of the colonies -and therefore indirectly the mother country’s as well. These attempts were traumatic for the students and threatened the survival of unique cultures. Agricultural school graduates did not compete with European industries or European farmers, as they mainly grew crops that could not be grown in European climates. European missionaries to southern Africa during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries played a strangely ambiguous role in the history and affairs of the region. Even if secondary education was provided, it was often reserved for the sons of local chiefs (Oliver 1952:212; Beck 1966: 120), an elite the colonial government could then call upon to help rule the colony, a common practice in colonial Africa. Our wide-ranging programs adapt to accommodate the shifting needs of our community. Copyright © 2020 CustomWritings. Ayandele (1966:283), writing in the 1960s, says, “By their [the missions’] efforts the main languages of Nigeria have been preserved as a lasting legacy to the Ibo, Yoruba, Efik, Nupe and Hausa.” However, this practice was in fact probably more due to stereotypes of African ignorance than an interest in being culturally respectful: missionaries may have believed that it would take too long to teach a “superior” European language to the unintelligent natives when the natives’ souls were in such desperate need of saving. Alvyn Austin, Saving China: Canadian Missionaries in the Middle Kingdom 1888-1959 (1986); Ruth Complon Brouwer, New Women for God: Canadian Presbyterian Women and India Missions, 1876-1914 (1990); Robert Choquette, The Oblate Assault on Canada's Northwest (1995); Raymond Huel, Proclaiming the Gospel to the Indians and Métis (1996); Martha McCarthy, … As a member of the Church of England, it interests me to see echoes of Christian educational efforts by organizations such as Compassion Canada in the educational efforts of the missionary branch of the Anglican Church, the Church Missionary Society, or CMS. It is much easier to interact on an equal basis or even challenge the authority of another group when one is able to communicate in that group’s language, instead of having to rely on an interpreter or non-verbal gestures, which undermine one’s ability to show authority or express one’s beliefs. The Missionaries had deep impact on the local culture. This involved learning to read in the vernacular” (Hadfield cited in Bone 1969:7). Given the fluctuating standards between schools and regions and the lack of qualified teachers in the mission schools which had monopolies in well into the mid-twentieth century, it should come as little surprise that the quality of education continues to be a concern in many former colonies. One of my intended ideas is to show how missionaries cause people to lose their original culture but, unfortunately, I haven't found and evidence to back it up. ��e���f�q���L�*�*B��c*"ʌ�RNA^��x6�֥ ))q�!؝I��t���jj�2Rz��xT{OKD�L��1���}�s�L�o��nSסDC=���7�. Impact on Education provides supplemental funding and resources to students and educators in order to expand what’s possible in education. Although those are different aspects of children ministries, it’s more the process of loving children as Christ did.As Jesus said:God’s heart went out to the children, just as ours should. >> The missionaries also arranged with Government but both of them had different educational strategies and aims. /Parent 2 0 R Moreover, it was not in the colonial power’s interest for the natives to become too educated, as they might become self-reliant and could conceivably demand independence from the colonial power, so encouraging the less intellectual agricultural schools was in the governments’ interest. Some of the mission-created institutions showed great constructive imagination in meeting par ticular needs. I do not mean to overlook the negative impacts of the coming of the missionaries. For this reason, missionaries believed they were doing their students a favour by discouraging traditional practices and promoting Western ones. There were several reasons for this poor education, some intentional and some not. As long as the Africans could read the Bible, the missionaries were satisfied that they had had enough academic education. /Filter /FlateDecode Christian missionaries have done much good throughout the world. … /Type /Page We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related emails. Employment, career, etc are possible only if education is present in the equation. These children are our future. In fact, the early overseas missionaries were responsible for pioneering English and modern vernacular education. David Livingstone: Missionary, Abolitionist, and Explorer to Africa. A member of the CMS, Henry Venn, boasted that the mission schools of Nigeria would produce an educated African elite that could “form an intelligent and influential class of society and become the founders of a Kingdom which shall render incalculable benefits to Africa” (Venn cited in Bassey 1991:37). Further Reading. However, the motivation behind teaching Africans basic literacy and mathematics might not have been a cause for concern if not for the fact that the religious motivation curtailed education. In short, the impact of teaching in the vernacular was more negative than positive, as it reinforced colonial rule and no doubt did very little to preserve native cultural identities, seeing as missionaries promoted European languages as “superior” and only used the vernacular because conversion and religious instruction were such high priorities. established, but the initiative in higher education has passed into the hands of government, and will probably stay there. Education is supposed to be an enlightening process that aims at magnifying our wisdom and store of knowledge. As Ayandele points out (1966:285), “the ideal of many of the missions was to make their converts …live literally as the ‘unlearned and ignorant’ apostles of old.” This ideal, combined with the fact that many missionaries discovered that Africans with only basic education were best at spreading the Gospel, meant that missionaries were reluctant to provide higher primary or secondary education (Ayandele 1966:286). But sometimes … As one Eritrean student remarks, “Our sisters [the Italian Sisters] would have undoubtedly taught better and more, but the Italian government in the colony did not permit Eritreans to get good instruction” (T.T. In southern Africa most of the leaders who participated in the fight for independence were educated by missionaries or schools built by missionaries. Mission schools provided a steady stream of educated Africans capable of filling the lower levels of the colonial administration and operated vocational and agricultural schools (Ayandele 1966: 295; Foster 1965: 90-91; Sheffield 1973: 10-11). It was a special day and, as one of them pointed out, likely my last day of pheasant hunting. This bias took the form of a number of regulations favouring the Church and limiting the influence and actions of Protestant mission- aries in general and on education in particular. When we think of missionaries and mission movements we often think of foreign works; however, missions is something that can be done in your own home town. Some earlier scholarship on mission education has taken this as a positive impact of the missionaries. Indeed, the quality of the education could be so poor that the colonial governments complained, as in the case of the Nigerian government, which complained that the secondary school graduates provided by the missions were “illiterate and ignorant” and therefore poorly suited to fill the lower levels of the administration (Ayandele 1966:294-5). The latter, non-academic form of education provided by the missions has stimulated much interest among scholars, who are particularly interested in the failure of many of these schools and the hypocritical government support for the schools, seeing as the import of cheap goods from the mother countries caused many vocational school graduates, such as seamstresses, to be unemployed (Ayandele 1966:296; Foster 1965:134). Another negative impact of mission education was that it weakened traditional societies, which in many ways further served the colonial cause. While colonial administration in colonies such as Kenya attempted to some degree to provide training for Kenyans to fill the high-level positions (Sheffield 1973:86), the attempts in many cases fell short, and when the European administration left, Kenya, for instance, had few sufficiently educated replacements (Sheffield 1973:88). Included on the website is information about the charity’s programs, such as their Leadership Development Program in which participants “earn a degree in their chosen field of study, and participate in Christian leadership training, enabling them to become a fully developed agent of change in their nation” (Compassion Canada 2011). /ProcSet [/PDF /Text ] As Sir Henry Johnston, a key figure in the “Scramble for Africa” says, “they [the mission stations] strengthen our hold over the country, they spread the use of the English language, they induct natives into the best kind of civilization, and in fact, each mission station is an essay in colonization” (Johnston cited in Sheffield 1973:10). After all, education is one of the most powerful tools you can offer another person. Sometimes individuals are sent and are called missionaries. Governments are also not free from blame even if they had a laissez-faire educational policy, as in Ghana, where “until 1944 the registration of schools was not required and no attempt was made to exert detailed control even over the activities of grant-aided [by the government] institutions except for a series of minimal registrations” (Foster 1965:114). Volunteers and donors to organizations such as Compassion Canada believe that they are being humanitarian when they build schools in Africa, volunteer as teachers or “help” in other ways to improve the quality of education in African nations, yet missionaries and colonial governments were similarly lauded as performing a “great work of humanity” (Beck 1966:117) and likewise believed that they were “helping” their African pupils. The missionaries believed that “in order to stabilize the faith of converts and to assist in character development, it was necessary that they should be able to read the scriptures or other books of religious instruction, translated by the missions. How the young children of immigrants experience their early school years may in large part determine their academic future and negatively affect their emotional, social, and mental development. Recently, I went pheasant hunting with some friends of my Dad who were kind enough to include me in their circle. << Not only did mission education strengthen colonial rule, but it also weakened traditional societies and implemented poor standards of Western education. This is probably one of the most common types of missionary work. Competition improved conditions for everyone. In conclusion, the educational enterprise of the Christian missionaries in the British and Italian colonies of Africa during the mid-nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries was primarily negative for the African pupils. One method of discouraging traditional practices was to give students a fully Western education. The reservation of high-level positions in the colonial administrations for Europeans and the corresponding mission education that provided education fit only for lower positions meant that the withdrawal of European rule could cause serious political instability in the newly independent colonies. /Contents 4 0 R Furthermore, mission schools discouraged traditional ways of life outside of the classroom. Obviously the Christian community's impact does not end there. 3 0 obj Qualified missionaries are sent to work at and teach in these schools. However hypocritical, government support for the schools should not be surprising, considering the benefits the colonial governments stood to gain. Missions involve sending individuals and groups, called missionaries, across boundaries, most commonly geographical boundaries, to carry on evangelism or other activities, such as educational or hospital work. Today, TEAM missionary Brett Miller shares about how missionaries impact cultures in good and bad ways — and how to avoid the latter. Thus, despite what the images of suffering African children on websites such as that of Compassion Canada might lead one to believe, it is time for Africans to educate their own, without any interference. Moreover, mission education formed a poor foundation for future educational conditions in the former colonies. As a mission school graduate noted, “local history was almost totally ignored. Furthermore, each denomination had differing policies on education, so standards in education fluctuated across each colony, depending on what denomination had schools in each area. Not only does it prepare someone to rise above poverty and avoid exploitation, but education also empowers people to live up to their highest potential as followers of Christ. Learn How to Order Essay Online. << by their own followers. The agricultural schools the missions ran would have been even more advantageous to the colonial governments considering the discouragement of local industries that might have competed with the motherland. endobj All rights reserved. The missions’ agricultural schools were especially beneficial for colonial governments considering that governments believed that manual labour was a means to prevent “discontent and unrest” in the tribes (Hansen 1984:232). Growing up with missions education changed my worldview, taught me the grand narrative of … THE ROLE OF MISSIONARIES. However the superficial motivations and ideologies have changed, at the most basic level both contemporary Northern charities and nineteenth century missionaries share the belief that the North must come and “save” the suffering natives, which in the case of the missionaries, has been proven to have inflicted more harm than provided relief. Christianity was introduced in North Africa as early as the first century AD., but it was only in the late nineteenth century, when colonialism was advancing, that Christianity seriously increased its presence on the continent (Ray, 1976: 193). The home page of Compassion Canada is that of a stereotypical Northern charity: showing pictures of suffering children alternating with those of post-intervention, happy children. /F1 6 0 R In addition, while missionaries did run many academic primary schools, they provided little secondary education, a practice which prevented natives from becoming “too educated” (Ayandele 1966:286) and potentially subversive. I need solid main ideas and sources to back it up. /MediaBox [0 0 432 666] The Missionaries strategies were changed as they got feedback while achieving their goals. Third, rivalry between the various Christian denominations also contributed to the poor standards of education. By clicking “Proceed”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. It was only looking after the weaknesses of traditional indigenous education did the missionaries conclude that Africans were uneducated. Catechists were also trained who helped in the spread of Christianity for example, in Uganda by 1911 many people had been converted and many cathedrals and churches were built like the Kikuyu churches (Charismatic Arathi or spirit churches.) Being ignorant of one’s history causes one to lose part of one’s identity and pride in that identity, and one is therefore more vulnerable to attacks denouncing one’s culture as inferior, especially if at the same time one is being taught the “noble” history of another culture. Furthermore, missionaries, believing in the “civilizing mission,” attempted to disintegrate traditional society through education by choosing academic subjects, such as the histories of the Western colonial powers, that illustrated the “superiority” of the Western culture, as well as by teaching about the superiority of the West in non-academic matters such as hygiene. After a time the idea becomes ingrained -it is heathen and unchristian to be an African culturally” (Awori cited in Berman 1974:536). Missionaries came to the colonies with a high degree of experience in working in schools in their homelands. They have increased literacy, brought in medical improvements, improvements in agriculture, ended or suppressed slavery, brought in science, and brought millions to faith in Jesus Christ. One Liberian student recalls that “we were taught to dress properly, to eat properly, to speak properly. The legacy of Christian missionaries in Africa lives up to this day. In southern Africa most of the leaders who participated in the fight for independence were educated by missionaries or schools built by missionaries. A second reason for the poor education of the mission schools was that in many cases the teachers in mission schools were unqualified as teachers, but were instead preachers by training. %PDF-1.5 S upporting the idea of missions and individual missionaries is important because it is God’s plan in this world to establish new churches and bring new believers to Christ through the work of missions. During colonialism in South Africa they defied the government and educated black students at a time when the colonial governments forbade this practice. ‘Properly’ meant by Anglo-Saxon standards. Teaching in the vernacular had an additional use as it further strengthened colonial rule, of which missionaries were often agents, for as the Kikuyu people of Kenya were aware, “[the] inability to communicate in English would be a crucial factor in the perpetuation of their subordinate status in the colony” (Berman 1974:531). Last, missionaries provided a very poor education, causing their students to be ill-equipped for social or material success, as they believed education to simply be a means for proselytization, were unqualified teachers, and allowed inter-denominational rivalries to interfere. Through missions education, they can grow up consistently hearing about God’s love for his people, his redemptive plan for us, and how we are significantly involved in this mission to glorify God. Christian missionaries devote time, energy and billions of dollars to helping African children orphaned by the AIDS epidemic. Not only did mission education strengthen colonial rule, but it also weakened traditional societies and implemented poor standards of Western education. We were expected to accept the European language as the superior one, and this was reinforced throughout my school career” (Abu cited in Berman 1974:536). The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem (nom. >> Jim Elliot (1927-1956) From an early age Jim Elliot learned the Bible and used it to lead his daily life. They did affect the native way of life in a few negative ways which was to be expected given the big difference in cultures and beliefs but as an educator, I have a lot of admiration … Edward Berman notes that contemporary critics of the missionaries felt that “missionaries were more interested in increasing enrolments in their respective churches than in pooling their resources for the benefit of African education” (Berman 1974:533). Seeing as missions in the British and Italian colonies had monopolies on education for the nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries, this reluctance meant that there were few secondary schools at all (Ayandele 1966:287; Beck 1966: 120). Every society has a history that will shape the present and future circumstances of its people and development. Accompanying the schools came printing presses, which were helpful in the dissemination of literature of all kinds. Given their priorities, it should thus come as little surprise that missions often provided poor education to the African pupils. Through academic lessons and lessons on Western etiquette and hygiene, mission students were isolated from their traditional cultures, a traumatic experience that would continue to trouble many students for the rest of their lives. Various reasons motivated missionaries to provide education. Innovative Impact Investing in Education, featuring Beth Bray of the Walton Family Foundation, and Holiday Hart McKiernan of Lumina Foundation, addresses the following topics: Why and how foundations with education missions As negative as all these impacts of the missionaries undoubtedly were for the African pupils, the long-term consequences are arguably as serious. Missionaries could sometimes clash with colonial governments of a plough and how to order essay had enough. Resources to students and threatened the survival of unique cultures this project is not a new concept Christianity to converts... ” ( Hadfield cited in Bone 1969:7 ) trained manpower through the introduction of farming which. Only looking after the weaknesses of traditional indigenous education did the missionaries conclude that Africans were.... It up, but it what are the impact of the missionaries on education? weakened traditional societies, which in many ways further served the governments! 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