No single activity has such power to improve- or degrade- the forest. Native forests are naturally occurring treed areas that are managed for sustainable timber production. biological requirements of the trees. Towards that goal, a small portion of trees were left behind to produce seed for new stands of trees. At MRC and HRC, we manage our forestlands with a long term goal of restoring the forest to a well-stocked condition with a large variety of sizes and ages of trees. Themba Forestry Contactors was established in 2001 by Glenn Simpson and Jimmy Mthembu as a professional forestry contacting entity and soon became one of the leading silviculture and harvesting service providers in the southern KZN. The reproductive success of some wildlife species rises and falls with years of abundant and sparse acorn production. The video below explains the harvesting and regeneration process. Lab hours. Series: Silviculture: Other details: Published 1999. Harvest, Silviculture and Retention Strategy –Arrowsmith TSA Page 4 Major Silviculture Strategies Timber Volume and Value Over Time Intensive management for timber volume and value under this strategy is directed to the green and yellow silviculture zones (sites with best returns and lowest risks). In practice, silviculture guides the way foresters mark stands of trees for cutting. Summer harvest preferred to encourage natural regen. Silvicultural workers can become highly skilled and make a good living from their work. Proper harvesting can provide income, improve wildlife habitat, and result in trails, better access, views, and a … The system is best applied in stands that have a range in tree sizes, and where the objective is to regenerate and grow tolerant species. Lecture hours. The system works best where the mature trees occur in clumps and where some mixture of intolerant or intermediate species is desired in the regeneration. We also use Group Selection when clumps of tanoaks are located in a conifer-dominated stand. PRUNING AND THINNING (SILVICULTURE) The term used for all the work needed once trees are established and before they are harvested is 'silviculture'. These methods include harvest of single trees or small groups of trees depending on the species, sizes and ages of the trees. Selection or selective cutting is one of the approaches that we often use here at DCI as part of our sustainable forestry practices. Variable retention harvesting retains between 10% and 40% of the original stand in both rolling and permanent pockets of retained trees and critical refugia. Harvesting-Silviculture Interface • Closely related and affected by one another • Technological advances have occurred in both sets of operations in SA Opens up opportunities for improved efficiencies 3. The tanoak groups are managed and the areas are then planted with conifer. Thin red pine to a residual density of 80-90 ft2/ac. Foresters will often release apple trees, oaks and other food producing species. Credits. Donald explains that when you look back at the last 30 to 40 years in harvesting, there has been tremendous progress in the machinery in terms of efficiency and productivity.“The same thing hasn’t happened in silviculture. Timber harvesting may also be done to improve the health of the stand. Most silvicultural benefits come from increases in future production – more logically handled as per acre cost and the future yield thereof ! Standard letter grades. Old forests with dead and dying trees provide habitat for pileated woodpeckers and other birds which carve out holes and hollows of dead and dying trees for feeding, nesting and denning. Clearcutting is best applied to stands where most of the trees are mature or defective and ready to be removed. Usually, a timber sale involves more than one of these reasons: Any harvest is balanced with growth using various selection silvicultures and harvesting methods. People still view silviculture more as a cost and not an investment and that is the wrong way to look at it. Selection cutting, also known as selection system, is the silvicultural practice of harvesting trees in a way that moves a forest stand towards an uneven-aged or all-aged condition, or 'structure'. Group Selection involves harvest of groups of trees ranging from 1/4 to 2 acres. Once tanoak-dominated stands are restored to redwood and Douglas-fir stands, the need for even-aged silviculture will be limited across both companies. Silviculture/Harvest Systems. Transition silviculture involves removal of trees individually or in small groups to create a balance of different stand structure and natural reproduction. Species that use these tree cavities include flying squirrels, owls, bluebirds, kestrels, chickadees and raccoons. This increased growth continues until the forest canopy closes again. Intolerant- Trees relatively incapable of developing and growing in the shade of, and in competition with, other trees. For example, clearcutting is used to favor regeneration of intolerants- paper birch, aspen, and pin cherry- along with a mixture of other species. Soft mast includes fruits such as black cherry. Additionally, the younger stands, below the residuals, are often thinned to alleviate overcrowding and maintain healthy growing conditions. Contact hours total. Where our forestlands have well-stocked conifer (redwood and Douglas-fir) forest, our foresters maintain the forest in a well stocked condition. Acorns are a staple for many of our forest wildlife (bear, deer, grouse, turkey, bluebirds, wood ducks, and squirrels). In this case, the marking may be light, removing only the low vigor trees. For example, a diseased, rough or suppressed 12 inch oak may be mature while a healthy 20 inch oak that is still increasing rapidly in value and volume may not be mature. Removing in a single cutting all of the overstory trees in a stand to develop a new stand in a shade-free environment is called a clear or clean cut harvest. Redwood forests grow particularly well using this regime because they can regenerate and grow in some shade. Silviculture's goal is to establish forests while controlling stand structure. Swallows, bluebirds and indigo buntings will quickly occupy a clearcut, particularly where snags or live trees with cavities and perches are left throughout. Also, most trees produce abundant seed only periodically and harvests are best timed to occur in a good seed year. As in any partial cutting, care is needed to avoid logging damage to the remaining trees and regeneration. As well as caring for young trees, main silviculture work includes pruning, and thinning to waste. The California Forest Practice Rules (CFPR) require the Registered Professional Forester (RPF) preparing the plans to designate and describe what cutting prescriptions are to be used in areas proposed for harvest. See my feature on clearcutting: The Debate Over Clearcutting Sometimes a general improvement cut is made which upgrades the quality and species mix of a stand. phone: (603) 862-1520  Hours: M-F, 8 a.m.- 5 p.m. Extension State Specialist, Forest Resources, Copyright © 2020 University of New Hampshire, TTY Users: 7-1-1 or 800-735-2964 (Relay NH), Identifying Trees and Shrubs in New Hampshire. Ontario uses three silviculture systems based on the characteristics of the current forest and the desired forest condition: Like any other science, forestry has a technical jargon. Due to the size of the project area and number of trees involved, harvesting using forestry methods provides a safe and economically responsible means to achieve the goals of this project. Qualifications + Glenn: Forestry B-Tech Forestry Degree Saasveld 2005 + Jimmy: N3 Qualification Eng. Rotation- The life of the stand. Forest management encompasses all measures implemented in the forest during a rotation, such as regeneration, young stand tending, thinning, fertilization and final harvesting. But silviculture is where the forestry cycle starts. There are a variety of harvesting and silvicultural treatments that can be performed on a forested stand to achieve a range of forest management goals. The seedlings of some species, such as aspen and paper birch, need full sunlight to survive and grow. The later thinnings remove products that can be sold. If designed correctly, this Group Selection method will maintain a successful stand of uneven-aged trees. Benefits to cultural resources:Timber harvesting guidelines can minimize the potential effects of harvesting activities, such as mixing of surface soils, rutting, compaction and erosion, which can damage certain kinds of cultural resources. Depending on species and topography, reforestation can occur by natural seeding, direct seeding, planting, or sprouting. In any partial cutting, one objective is to remove the diseased, slow growing, and mature trees, leaving crop trees that are increasing rapidly in size and value. The use of even-aged silviculture and harvesting systems on MRC land is used as a transitional strategy and may still occur occasionally on HRC land where restoration harvests are needed. If many overstory trees are left, the shady conditions are good for tolerant species such as red spruce or hemlock. Several species of birds require mature forests including scarlet tanager, ovenbird, wood thrush, red-eyed vireo and black-throated blue warbler. In some cases, regeneration from the seed and shelterwood trees was unsuccessful. It’s important to create stand conditions where desired species will seed and grow. Single Tree Selection: Single Tree Selection silviculture is used primarily to thin conifer-dominated stands of redwood or Douglas-fir, or very young stands of redwood and Douglas-fir. Generally, there are four reasons foresters mark specific trees in any given timber sale. However, all sales should involve one or more of the four reasons for choosing trees to cut. Evaluation of Data, Silviculture and Projected Results: Work Plan / Silviculture: Public safety is the primary reason for management of this area. Harvesting & Silviculture Treatments. Not all timber sales fall neatly within these silvicultural systems. Although not found in the mature forest, chestnut sided warblers, common yellow throats and white-throated sparrows will move into these small clearings, feeding on the abundance of insects. Stand- A group of trees similar in age, species, and structure, and growing on a sufficiently uniform site as to be a distinguishable unit. Periodic Single Tree Selection harvest (every fifteen to twenty years) will maintain steady individual tree growth while allowing for smaller trees to fill in from beneath. Fewer overstory trees provide partial shade for oak or white pine. Even-aged management The use of even-aged silviculture and harvesting systems on MRC land is used as a transitional strategy and may still occur occasionally on HRC land where restoration harvests are needed. Selling timber is a once in a lifetime activity for most landowners. Silviculture is often confused with managing stands and forests purely for timber when, in fact, it is the art and science of contro. Recommended preparation. Raspberries, pin cherry, aspen, and paper birch sprout soon after cutting, providing valuable sources of berries and seeds (mast), browse, and cover for many species of wildlife. 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