Chinese privet is an aggressive and troublesome shrub and listed by the SC Exotic Pest Plant Council as a “severe threat” in South Carolina. Gledhill, David (2008). United States Land-Grant University System – Find your Land-Grant University’s College of Agriculture, University Cooperative Extension Service, or other related partner on this map provided by USDA. [Accessed Sep 10, 2014]. It is a common garden escape in the southeast U. S. (where it is regarded as invasive), and reaches the northern edge of its range in Massachusetts. Where Found. Chinese privet is a semi-evergreen shrub or small tree that grows to 20 ft (6.1 m) in height. Kuding is a Chinese tea made from either a Ligustrum or Ilex species. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), glossy privet fruits are plants that belong to the 'Tonic herbs for Yin Deficiency' category. This invasive species can be identified by looking for the characteristics described in the paragraphs that follow. Also resemble upland swampprivet, Forestiera ligustrina (Michx.) Poir., which occurs mainly on rocky sites and has short twigs and sparse flowers and fruit. The Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) reproduces so successfully that it is displacing native vegetation in some parts of the southeastern United States. U.S. Seed soil viability is about one year. The ripe fruit is used to make medicine. Chinese privet is a semi-evergreen shrub or small tree that grows to 20 ft (6.1 m) in height. Ecological Threat Several privet species occur, and distinguishing among them can be difficult. It can form an impenetrable thicket and produces toxic berries. Ligustrum lucidum, the broad-leaf privet, Chinese privet glossy privet, tree privet or wax-leaf privet, is a species of flowering plant in the olive family Oleaceae, native to the southern half of China and naturalized in many places: Spain, Italy, Algeria, Canary Islands, New Zealand, Lesotho, South Africa, Japan, Korea, Australia, Norfolk Island, Chiapas, Central America, Argentina, and the southern United States (California, Arizona, Maryland, and the southeast from Texas to North Carolina). [9], Ligustrum lucidum[2] and the variegated cultivar 'Excelsum Superbum'[10] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Fruit begins green, ripens to dark purple to black, and persists into winter. The Latin specific epithet lucidum means "bright" or "shiny", referring to the leaves. Leaves are opposite, oval, pubescent on the underside of the midvein, and less than 2 in. Privet fruit are small, oblong-shaped berries that are dark blue or black. How to report an invasive species sighting to EDDMapS – Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System. Some species produce a fruit, which is mildly toxic to humans. The ripe fruit is used to make medicine. The fruit ripens around September. A Management Guide for Invasive Plants in Southern Forests – USDA Forest Service, A Field Guide for the Identification of Invasive Plants in Southern Forests – USDA Forest Service, Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas – National Park Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ligustrum sinense Fact Sheet – U.S. Present: AL, AR, CT, FL, GA, HI, IL, KY, LA, MA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, OH, OK, PR, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA To see a county distribut… N 01574. [5][6][7] The name "Chinese privet" is also used for Ligustrum sinense. Habitats: Roadsides and in river valleys[109]. Chinese privet can tolerate a wide range of conditions. Japanese privet is weedy in disturbed areas around buildings and has escaped and naturalized in moist areas. Search ... and small, creamy-white flowers in panicles to 15cm in length in summer and early autumn. Scrophulariales > Oleaceae > Ligustrum sinense Lour. The leaves are opposite, glossy dark green, 6–17 centimetres (2.4–6.7 in) long and 3–8 centimetres (1.2–3.1 in) broad. The plant also colonizes by root sprouts. Synonym(s): common Chinese privet, common privet, Chinese privet – The reported distribution of this invasive species across the United States (Source: Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States), Up-to-the-minute distribution maps and why they are important. The flowers are similar to other privets, white or near white, borne in panicles, and have a strong fragrance, which some people find unpleasant. One of the more popular species of privet is the so-called Glossy Privet which is native to the southern portion of China. Location, habitat, weather, and a variety of other conditions are factors that help determine the best treatment choice. This exotic shrub is notorious for producing dense thickets, especially in bottomland forests and in floodplains, where these thickets choke out all native plants. Most make good container subjects. However, privet fruit is not to be used by individuals who have diarrhea that is due to a weak digestive system. 1 Privet Fruit … What are invasive species, and why should we be concerned about them? Chinese privet and the feeding ecology of white-tailed deer: the role of an exotic plant. Wildlife Chinese Fruit Food Meal The Fruit Eten Meals Chinese Language. It has become an invasive species in some areas where it has been introduced, such as urban areas in the southeastern United States. Ligustrum sinense is now found in all 3 physiographic like fruit. [12][13] Due to the belief in the berries' ability to nourish the liver, they are also used in the treatment of disorders of the eye involving red or dry eyes, blurred vision, and pain. EDDMapS – Report an invasive species to EDDMapS. Control and management recommendations vary according to individual circumstances. White, aromatic flowers give way to small fruits that are eaten by birds and other wildlife; this is one way the plant spreads – the other is by root sprouts. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. Swarbrick JT, Timmins SM, Bullen KM, 1999. It is tolerant of alkaline soils, pollution, shade, dry conditions, and it cold hardy. Chinese privet is, true to its common name, introduced from China. Ligustrum sinense. Birds and other wildlife eat the fruit and disperse the seeds. It is about 1/4in diameter, and contains a hard seed. The name "Chinese privet" is also used for Lig… (1.3 cm) long. Chinese Privet is a shrub or small tree that grows 61⁄2-13" tall. Non-native privet is a semi-evergreen shrub or small tree that grows to 20 ft (6.1 m) in height. County Extension Offices – Find your county Extension office on this map provided by USDA. Since most privets will grow well in any kind of soil, vigilance is required to keep them from taking over. Native to Europe and Asia, Chinese privet was introduced in the United States in 1852 as an ornamental plant. Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense, Prospects for Classical Biological Control in the Southeastern United States. 2015-41595-24254 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. It was introduced into the United States in the early to mid-1800s as an ornamental plant; it later escaped from cultivation and has naturalized throughout the southeastern United States. Birds and other wildlife eat the fruit and disperse the seeds. Shade tolerant. Flowers white, fragrant, about 3/8 inch wide, borne in narrow clust… Integrated Taxonomic Information System. How to Grow Chinese Privet From a Cutting. Leaves are opposite, oblong, 1 to 2.4 in. It is classed as a noxious weed in New South Wales, Australia,[1] and is similarly listed in New Zealand's National Pest Plant Accord. They can shade out and exclude native understory species, perhaps even reducing tree recruitment. Ligustrum lucidum, the broad-leaf privet,[1] Chinese privet[2] glossy privet,[3] tree privet[4] or wax-leaf privet, is a species of flowering plant in the olive family Oleaceae, native to the southern half of China and naturalized in many places: Spain, Italy, Algeria, Canary Islands, New Zealand, Lesotho, South Africa, Japan, Korea, Australia, Norfolk Island, Chiapas, Central America, Argentina, and the southern United States (California, Arizona, Maryland, and the southeast from Texas to North Carolina). [8], Ligustrum lucidum is an evergreen tree growing to 10 m (33 ft) tall and broad. (5 to 7.6 cm) long. Trunks usually occur as multiple stems with many long, leafy branches. Leaves are lustrous green above and pale green and hairy beneath. Fruit are oval, fleshy, and less than 0.5 in. Flowering occurs from April to June, when panicles of white to cream flowers develop in terminal and upper axillary clusters. Privet fruit is also effective for treating dizziness, fatigue, floaters and spots before the eyes, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), premature graying of hair, aching lower back, as well as macular degeneration. Leaves are opposite, oval, pubescent on the underside of the midvein, and less than 2 in. It is commonly used as an ornamental shrub and for hedgerows. fruit extract induces apoptosis and cell senescence in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through upregulation of p21", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ligustrum_lucidum&oldid=980216908, Plants used in traditional Chinese medicine, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 September 2020, at 07:50. "The Names of Plants". Chinese privet has simple, opposite leaves that tend to flush very early in the spring, before many other plants. Find help & information on Ligustrum lucidum Chinese privet from the RHS. The plant also colonizes by root sprouts. Colonize by root sprouts and spread widely by abundant bird- and other animal-dispersed seeds. Originally from China, Chinese privet is found throughout the mid-Atlantic, Southern, and Midwestern North America. Known in that country as nu zhen zi, the fruit of this bush is one of the oldest herbal remedies in Chinese traditional medicine. (5 cm) long. To find the safest and most effective treatment for your situation, consult your state’s land-grant institution. Its fetid flowers bloom in late spring and have an odor that can be offensive to many people. Leaf scars are raised and half-circular with one bundle scar. This work is supported by New Technologies for Agriculture Extension grant no. It has been widely planted for hedges and has since escaped cultivation spreading throughout the Southeast and Midwest. Blossoms are followed by small, berrylike, blue-black fruit. Charles T. Bryson, USDA Agricultural Research Service. U.S. Habitat: Aggressive and troublesome invasives, often forming dense thickets, particularly in bottom-land forests and along fencerows, thus gaining access to forests, fields, and right-of-ways. [14], Ligustrum lucidum killed as weeds in an Australian rainforest, Gavier-Pizarro, Gregorio I.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Hoyos, Laura E.; Stewart, Susan I.; Huebner, Cynthia D.; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Radeloff, Volker C. 2012. It works in the landscape as an evergreen ornamental shrub, however, it does not work well as a foundation plant. Chinese privet has small blue/purple, fleshy fruits, which resemble blueberries. It has become an invasive weed in the southeastern US. (0.5 to 1.5 cm) wide. The seeds are known as nu zhen zi (female chastity seed/berry) in traditional Chinese medicine and are believed to nourish liver and kidney yin and jing in the treatment of tinnitus (ringing in the ears), vertigo (dizziness), premature graying of the hair, and soreness/weakness of the lower back and knees. Seed soil viability is about one year. Introduced from China and Europe in the early to mid-1800s. Find help & information on Ligustrum lucidum Chinese privet from the RHS. History and use. Several privet species occur, and distinguishing among them can be difficult. Glossy Privet Fruit Gordon Euryale Seed Great Burdock Achene Green Tangerine Peel Grosvenor Momordica Fruit Gypsum Hawthorn Fruit Heartleaf Houttuynia Herb Heterophylly Falsestarwort Root Himalayan Teasel Root Hirsute Shiny Bugleweed Herb ... Glossy Privet Fruit; Herb name (Chinese): Fish and Wildlife Service, Ligustrum sinense Fact Sheet – UW-Extension Weed Science. Cambridge University Press. It produces toxic berries. Chinese Privet, Glossy privet, White Wax Tree, Tree Ligustrum: Family: Oleaceae: USDA hardiness: 8-11: Known Hazards: The fruit is mildly toxic[238]. China Privet Fruit, China Privet Fruit Suppliers and Manufacturers Directory - Source a Large Selection of Privet Fruit Products at dried fruit ,fruit companies ,dragon fruit vietnam from China Alibaba.com If you will use chemicals as part of the control process, always refer to the product label. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual – Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council (SE-EPPC), Fire Effects Information System – USDA Forest Service, Element Stewardship Abstract – The Nature Conservancy, Invasive Plant Atlas of New England – University of Connecticut, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants – University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). Glossy privet is a plant. Be careful not to confuse glossy privet (Ligustrum lucidum) with other species of privet such as Japanese privet, border privet, Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), common privet, golden privet, and others. Flowering occurs in late spring, when small, white flowers develop at the ends of branches in clusters that are 2 to 3 in. Leaves opposite, with short petioles; blades up to 2 inches long, ovate to elliptic, usually rounded at the tip, sometimes with a small notch, tapering to the base, and with smooth margins. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Young twigs covered with fine hairs visible under a l0x hand lens. It produces masses of small, white, tubular flowers, which mature into bluish berries. Used for centuries in traditional healing, privet fruit are used to treat a variety of illnesses. What is the best way to report the occurrence of an invasive species? Pollen can cause an allergic reaction in some people. Journal of Wildlife Management, 62(4):1321-1329. Chinese privet is similar to Common Privet (Ligustrum vulgare), a European species that is naturalized in more temperate areas of the eastern United States. They ripen to dark purple to black and persist into winter. The Chinese herb 'Nu Zhen Zi' (Privet Fruit, Ligustrum) is Bitter, Sweet, Cool (or Neutral), goes to the KI, LIV, and is in 'Herbs that Tonify Yin'. ". Taxonomy: Scientific and Common Names for This Species, Native Species That Resemble Chinese Privet, Additional Information, Biology, Control and Management Resources, Aquatic (Water-Dwelling) Invasive Species, Terrestrial (land-dwelling) invasive species, Public Outreach and Education Materials (Invasive species), United States Land-Grant University System, A Management Guide for Invasive Plants in Southern Forests, A Field Guide for the Identification of Invasive Plants in Southern Forests, Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas, Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual. Ligustrum sinense Identification Card – U.S. Ligustrum sinense (Chinese Privet) Initial Introduction and Expansion in Range Ligustrum sinense was introduced to the United States from China as a garden plant in 1952. It is also one of several species of privet used as dense, evergreen hedges, which can be trained to a specific size and shape by regular pruning.[9]. Tonic herbs are used for patterns of Deficiency, when one lacks one of the 'Four Treasures' (Qi, Blood, Yin and Yang). Trunks usually occur as multiple stems with many long, leafy branches. Chinese privet has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over 1,000 years. Plants form dense thickets, invading fields, fencerows, roadsides, forest understories, and riparian sites. The fruit is antibacterial, antiseptic, antitumour, cardiotonic, diuretic and tonic. Trunks usually occur as multiple stems with many long, leafy branches. Chinese privet is semi-deciduous in colder areas, only grows to 5m high, has dull green leaves with a rounded tip and a hairy midrib on the underside. Fruit begins green, ripens to dark purple to black, and persists into winter. Chinese privet invades and damages native ecosystems. An escape from cultivation, found near streams and in old fencerows. Privet fruit is from the ligustrum lucidum plant, a traditional Chinese herb known by the name of Nu Zhen Zi. The privet fruit is a member of the Oleaceae and medicinally referred to as ligustrum lucidum ait. At least some privet species are known to be toxic to horses. The fruit are ellipsoidal to nearly globose and are produced abundantly in persistent, pyramidal clusters. (2.5 to 6 cm) long, and 0.2 to 0.6 in. David J. Moorhead, University of Georgia. The abundant fruits are spherical and 0.3 to 0.5 in. Birds eat them and distribute the seeds everywherewith the result that seedlings come up everywhere, too. Yin tonics have a heavy, moist nature. The bark is brownish-gray to light gray and slightly rough (not fissured). Resemble Japanese privet, L. japonicum Thunb., which has larger leaves and is further described in this book. Glossy privet is a plant. (5 cm) long. (1 to 1.3 cm) long. White tubular flowers (Oct-Mar) with characteristic purple or mauve anthers. Although no other reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, it is quite probable that other parts of the plant also contain toxins[65]. Privet’s dense growth shades out native plants, especially in the forest understories and along riparian corridors. [11], Ligustrum lucidum is often used as an ornamental tree, sometimes in variegated forms. Chinese privet has evergreen to semi- Chinese privet, also called privet, privet hedge, and hedge bush, is a woody, very invasive shrub native to China. Chinese privet would be a good candidate for classical biological control because the environmental risks associated with the importation and release of host specific natural enemies would be low. Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Monitoring the invasion of an exotic tree (, "Chinese Privet (Ligustrum Lucidum, Nu Zhen Zi) | Chinese Herbs Healing", "Ligustrum lucidum Ait. Evergreen shrub with spreading branches. Branches are brownish gray with light dots (lenticels), becoming hairy (rusty or grayish) and gray-green. Foliage can be pubescent along the underside of the midvein. Symptoms from eating privet fruit include nausea, headache, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, low blood pressure, and low body temperature. Chinese Privet. There are no native congeners in the genus Ligustrum occurring in the United States (Pemberton 1996). It is also known for other alternative names such as Chinese Linguster, Chinese Wax-leaf Privet, Nu Zhen Zi (Glossy Privet Fruit) 女貞子 Nu Zhen Trueno and Yojungja. Globose and are produced abundantly in persistent, pyramidal clusters with many long, leafy branches black and into! Spherical and 0.3 to 0.5 in spreading throughout the Southeast and Midwest as an tree... To nearly globose and are produced abundantly in persistent, pyramidal clusters evergreen to semi- begins... 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