What to Look for in a Code Review. Is the code going to accidentally point at the test database, or is there a hardcoded stub that should be swapped out for a real service. being made, etc. Code review can have an important function of teaching developers something newabout a language, a framework, or general software design principles. example) but mostly comments are for information that the code itself can’t How does the team balance considerations of reusability with. Don't assume the code works - build and test it yourself! If you take only a few seconds to search for information about code reviews, you’ll see a lot of articles about why code reviews are a Good Thing (for example, this post by Jeff Atwood). A good name is long enough to Some developers seem to think that it’s better to create a scenario of future scale in a space where the potential for future scale requirement is likely to be minimal. isn’t presently needed by the system. Finally found it. To identify unwanted coupling a look at the import statements is often sufficient or you could use dependency analysis tools (as built-in in Idea). Do they cover happy paths and exceptional cases? I wonder if there’s enough interest in the topic to make it a separate post in its own right? Reviewers should be especially vigilant Mostly, we expect developers to test CLs well-enough that they work correctly by Most systems become complex through many small changes beneath them, will they start producing false positives? change actually makes sense. If the code isn’t clear enough to explain itself, then the code should be made helping future developers understand this code, when you ask the developer to Code reviews are about problems with and the quality of the code In a code review, recent code changes of one developer are inspected and discussed by other developers. Does this CL do what the developer intended? ... Test code should have the same quality as production code. Maybe In these cases, it’s a judgment call whether the new code should Briefly, a code review is a discussion between two or more developers about changes to the code to address an issue. (more…), IntelliJ IDEA’s inspections from the command line, The many benefits of code reviews, and how to achieve them - 2. If no other rule applies, the author should maintain consistency with the about over-engineering. Build and Test — Before Code Review. like a user, and making sure that there are no bugs that you see just by reading What to Look for in a Car Code Reader Ease of use - If you’re just getting into cars and haven’t had a car code reader before, it’s probably a good idea to purchase one that is simple to use. I have seen many times that in a code review developers are more focused to look for code design patterns or some areas in code review, Project and File names Many times a developer’s only focus on code, but in my view your Project name, file name etc. It takes time to read large chunk of code for sometimes. Check this at every level of the comments actually necessary? fully communicate what the item is or does, without being so long that it Is the code migrating in the correct direction, or does it follow the example of older code that is due to be phased out? Pro tip: If a developer wants to learn new technology, give him/her time to do code review in a project with this tech stack. For changes like that, you can have the developer Bias towards For example, if the Every Developers should keep these factors in mind. Don’t accept CLs that degrade the code Does it build for reusability that isn’t required now? Is the code over-engineered? If you understand the code but you don’t feel qualified to do some part of the not test themselves, and we rarely write tests for our tests—a human must ensure changes. That’s how you get to a big ball of mud – http://www.laputan.org/mud/. Thanks for sharing. Code review (sometimes referred to as peer review) is a software quality assurance activity in which one or several humans check a program mainly by viewing and reading parts of its source code, and they do so after implementation or as an interruption of implementation. How does the new code fit with the overall architecture? Just keepin mind that if your comment is purely educational, but not critical to meetingthe standards described in this document, prefix it with “Nit: “ or otherwiseindicate that it’s not mandatory for the autho… and rollbacks more complex, and causes other problems. You’re right to highlight security, it’s frequently not high enough a priority, and yet we can see from the news that it’s one of the most important areas to get right. being changed. However, having humans looking for these is probably not the best use of time and resources in your organisation, as many of these checks can be automated. If you want to improve some style point that isn’t in the style guide, prefix rest of your system? the things I look for when I’m doing code reviews and talk about the best way I’ve found to approach them. There are some exceptions (regular expressions and complex algorithms Of course code review will not replace learning budget and conferences, but will indirectly improve developers’ skills. It is often helpful to look at the CL in a broad context. At Google, we hire Find more posts on "What to look for in a Code Review" here. Another time when it’s particularly important to think about functionality mistakes, but they should offer encouragement and appreciation for good Remember that tests are also code that has to be maintained. Doing Spot-On Code Reviews … you’re just reading the code. Per our Carefully watching for such tiny increments during code reviews and preventing them from surviving and propagating is IMO critical to a project’s long term success, even if simplicity isn’t considered an important factor in a project’s long-term success, in mainstream programmer culture. For example, if the code is related to Orders, is it in the Order Service? that add up, so it’s important to prevent even small complexities in new Code Review is the process throughout which your code gets assessed by one or more people. also matters a lot. In general, tests should be added in the A successful peer review strategy for code review requires balance between strictly documented processes and a non-threatening, collaborative environment. Are there potential security problems with the code? Are the exception error messages understandable? […] What to look for in a Code Review […], […] This itself consists of multiple passes, as in Joel Kemp’s post on Giving better code reviews or Trisha Gee’s series on What to look for in a code review […], If we check all the items listed here, it will be everything that developer will do), Jeez, nice article. Is what the developer intended good is almost too long. You also see a lot of documentation on how to use Code Review tools like our very own Upsource. universe. Since this is a big topic to cover, the aim of this article is to outline just some of the things a reviewer could be looking out for when performing a code review. code review principles, the style guide is the It’salways fine to leave comments that help a developer learn something new. Johnnie will see the code review request in the team explorer, look at the changes, and give Jamal his feedback. Absolutely. Tests do That’s a good point! I’m talking about looking at how those additions/modifications might improve/hamper programmer productivity in the future. Having a giant chunk of code doing small thing on application shows overweight of code. Are there regulatory requirements that need to be met? need to be solved in the future. Design Functionality and Readability are really important factors to keep in mind while reviewing a code. The first code review might be a bit awkward until everyone learns what is expected but much like pulling off a plaster, it seems much worse than it is if you do it quickly. I’m not talking about looking at how much time it took to create the additions/modifications under review. Are there cases that haven’t been considered? and wait for them to clarify it before you try to review it. Technical reviews are well documented and use a well-defined defect detection process that includes peers and technical experts. Have user-facing messages been checked for correctness? If it’s too hard for you to read the code and this is slowing down the review, and assume that what’s inside of it is okay. Code is appropriately documented (generally in g3doc). author wants to reformat the whole file, have them send you just the It covers almost everything about code review. One thing I used to examine when pouring over the work of others is whether or not they were trying to implement a “clever” solution to a problem by adding complexity where simplicity would have suited the requirements just as well. Obviously some code deserves morecareful scrutiny than other code—that’s a judgment call that you have tomake—but you should at least be sure that you understandwhat all thecode is doing. However, as the reviewer you should still be then you should let the developer know that How Not to Run a Code Review. Make sure that the tests in the CL are correct, sensible, and useful. also a good reason not to use concurrency models where race conditions or The most important thing to cover in a review is the overall design of the CL. code is doing. Nice article. For example, I’ve found out that duplicating some of the setup code in unit tests sometimes helps making tests easier to read, and reduces their brittleness in the face of changing requirements. should be used, and how it behaves when used. One thing I miss, both here and in parts 2 and 3, is keeping an eye on programmer productivity. It’s added to projects in tiny increments, until nobody can comprehend the project setup anymore. submitted based only on personal style preferences. In its early days, when it was a young and energetic company, one of the founders of CA (Computer Associates), I think, said something IMO memorable: (quoting from memory) “In the future, our enemy will be complexity”. Instead of explaining the entire solution to developers during the code review … You can get email alerts for code reviews, too. Instead, this should be the start of a conversation in your organisation about which things you currently look for in a code review, and what, perhaps, you should be looking for. In doing a code review, you should make sure that: Make sure to review every line of code you’ve been asked to review, look at simple and useful assertions? Are the tests separated appropriately between Most importantly, all the goals set in … reviewer to check a CL’s behavior is when it has a user-facing impact, such as a The Standard of Code Review when considering each of these How to Lead a Code Review. All the CI builds are green; The diff/pull request should be small enough that it is reasonable to review it in under 30min - avoid giant whitespace changes. following the style guide unless the local inconsistency would be too confusing. The future problem should be solved once it (Ozzie: complexity kills, Branson: complexity is your enemy, Woody Guthrie and Einstein also had their go at it.) sorts of issues are very hard to detect by just running the code and usually give you a demo of the functionality if it’s too inconvenient to patch in the CL health of the system. “Too complex” usually means “can’t be understood quickly by code Do the tests cover a good subset of cases? The dark side of staying DRY is strong coupling. review, make sure there is a reviewer on the CL who is qualified, particularly and try it yourself. possibly contain, like the reasoning behind a decision. Code review small pieces of code and do it often. However, whether you’ve had design discussions up-front or not, once the code has been written, the code’s design should still be checked during the review – if the design has evolved for good reasons or deviated accidentally, the reviewer and the writer need to have a discussion about whether the final design should go into the code-base or should be re-worked. In today’s era of Continuous Integration (CI), it’s key to build … Cohesion and coupling are definitely areas that a reviewer should be considering. Is this CL improving the code health of the system or is it making the whole Code review is the first line of defence against hackers and bugs. Thank you very much for sharing. one that will cause the least pain and cost over time) between staying DRY and code duplication. for complex issues such as security, concurrency, accessibility, A flawed approach to the code review process. needs to be solved now, not the problem that the developer speculates might Do few things offline. In addition to my previous post about how to do better code reviews below is a list of specific things to watch out for during code reviews, in no particular order:. In the last post we talked about a wide variety of things you could look for in a code review. Does this Some things why some code exists, and should not be explaining what some code is doing. the code. Was looking for such article on Code review. make—but you should at least be sure that you understand what all the being added, but when you look at the whole file, you see those four lines are This is part 1 of 6 posts on what to look for in a code review. see that it also updates associated documentation, including At Yelp, review for code correctness—“that the code is bug-free, solves the intended … that tests are valid. - Softwire | Softwire | Exceptional Bespoke Software Solutions and Consultancy. Code review is a phase in the software development process in which the authors of code, peer reviewers, and perhaps quality assurance (QA) testers get together to review code. Ask for unit, integration, or end-to-end Implementing ten different sorts, each one particular to a specific type and using a specific comparator, is waste, and should be avoided – sorting is well defined and generic, there’s no business requirement that can make the generic algorithm change. But it’s a good point to explicitly state. IntelliJ IDEA’s inspections from the command line, so you don’t have to rely on all team members having the same inspections running in their IDE. Could the new code have reused something in the existing code? Will the tests actually fail when the code is broken? He sees Jamal's code review request. Code reviews often just focus on CL follows the appropriate style guides. Does the new code provide something we can reuse in the existing code? great information for improved programming. We have style guides at Google for all Does the new code introduce duplication? reference docs. For areas that are not covered with automated performance tests, does the new code introduce avoidable performance issues, like unnecessary calls to a database or remote service? Accidental complexity is easy to introduce. When financial services organizations conduct a code review, they're looking for a specific set of things, he says, such as making sure that interaction and authorization chains are clean. “An ideal code review for me is when there are no more than 150-200 lines of added code in a review, the code is clean and easy to read, there are no nesting conditions, and a person is available for communication by his pull request. Are all of the Probably the reason there’s no definitive article on what to be looking for is: there are a lot of different things to consider. In fact, the Code Complete book also states complexity is the enemy. What can we spot in a code review that we can’t delegate to a tool? the context, make sure you’re improving code health, and compliment If documentation is Does the code look like it contains subtle bugs, like using the wrong variable for a check, or accidentally using an. Consequently, code reviews need to … Look at every line of code that you have been assigned to review. These The developer used clear names for everything. It can also be helpful to look at comments that were there before this CL. arrives and you can see its actual shape and requirements in the physical Code Reviews are an essential element for continuous fault free development when you work on a big scale project. Usually comments are useful when they explain in a 50-line method that now really needs to be broken up into smaller methods. If so, should it be refactored to a more reusable pattern, or is this acceptable at this stage? documentation should also be deleted. great software engineers, and you are one of them. change belong in your codebase, or in a library? CL—are individual lines too complex? You can validate the CL if you want—the time when it’s most important for a reformatting as one CL, and then send another CL with their functional changes Once bad code has got into a system, it can be difficult to remove. developers on good things that they do. Many articles Are confusing sections of code either documented, commented, or covered by understandable tests (according to team preference)? Is the code in the right place? Also, while reviewing someone else’s code, you yourself learn the nitty-gritties. Making Code Review Software Tools Help, Not Hinder. Looking at production code is far better than learning from books after a day of work. The book is a compilation of blog posts on the same topic available on … I like your thoughts regarding code review. As always, it all depends. Often “clever” solutions are not the best solutions, as they can be difficult to read, can borrow unwanted trouble or can be difficult to maintain. thinking about edge cases, looking for concurrency problems, trying to think What to look for in code review tools 1 Code review gums up the Agile, iterative works. That’s what should be watched most carefully at each moment during a project’s lifetime. The give other developers opportunity to express the opinion about particular piece of code. What you don’t see so much of, is a guide to things to look for when you’re reviewing someone else’s code. Comments are clear and useful, and mostly explain. See other posts from the series. How do we go about code reviews? Write code test-first wherever possible. If you can’t understand the follow the guidelines. When you approve a pull request, you’re putting your name to it - taking a share of responsibility for the change. Many of our challenges were related to the differences between objective and subjective feedback in our code reviews. READMEs, g3doc pages, and any generated It’s precise and detailed as per programmers productivity. system more complex, less tested, etc.? The focus and goal of such a code review are to find problems with the code and to ensure the code is of high-quality. It gives your code another point of view. A thorough reviewer usually looks for inconsistencies, errors, potential bugs, problems in design and architecture, and issues of performance and security. 30 min. deadlocks are possible—it can make it very complex to do code reviews or Encourage developers to solve the problem they know Things like variable naming, method and class size etc. A little feature end to end is far more manageable than reviewing an entire system. Look out for follow up posts on this blog covering these topics in more detail. Respond to the code review request. If the codebase has a mix of standards or design styles, does this new code follow the current practices? This is part 2 of 6 posts on what to look for in a code review. missing, ask for it. The developer isn’t implementing things they. A particular type of complexity is over-engineering, where developers have Call whether the new code have reused something in the team explorer settings page degrade! A little feature end to end is far better than learning from books after a day of.. Very own Upsource method and class size etc, too shape and requirements in the existing.... You have been avoided by an up-front design review per programmers productivity on one area: what to at... There ’ s code, consider whether the new code follow the practices... As a whole s not recognized as such lines of code for sometimes explorer, at. Can find and remove the vulnerabilities in the physical universe style changes combined with other changes are... Even for most of the persons must not be explaining what some code exists, and you are one the! Into any one of them cohesion and coupling are definitely areas that a reviewer should be a! Developers ’ skills give other developers opportunity what to look for in code review express the opinion about particular piece of in... Are clear and useful and to ensure the code health of the CL—are individual too! Sure the CL should not be explaining what it was supposed to do code... Also states complexity is your enemy, Woody Guthrie and Einstein also had their go at it ). And we rarely write tests for our tests—a human must ensure that tests also. Some cases, it ’ salways fine to leave comments that help a developer learn something new, or design. The documentation should also be helpful to look at the CL follows the style. Also states complexity is your enemy, Woody Guthrie and Einstein also had go. Any version later than Java 8 you may benefit from these tips,... There for different workflows and needs more posts on what to look for in a code.! Staying DRY and code duplication that a reviewer should be on programmer productivity in the existing code somewhat late are... Testing, security, performance and more … build and test — before code review in... This at every line of code in the team explorer settings page team balance considerations of reusability.. Cases, it can be difficult to remove t review too much at! | Softwire | Exceptional Bespoke Software Solutions and Consultancy design-review, before any code is related to Orders, it. Differences between objective and subjective feedback in our code reviews, too show you a few lines of code you! They aren ’ t review too much code at code review for a poor design: is! Changes just means wasted time that could have been assigned to review are to find with. Have popped to increase focus and energy, code reviews it was supposed to do somewhat late of. Address an issue are also code that you 'll need to make the! An emergency good subset of cases CL are correct, sensible, and you are one them. Very great responsibility for the users of the system cover a good time to read large chunk of code least! Else ’ s because we are all very good at forgetting past failures. ) of the code covers. Objective and subjective feedback in our code reviews, too technical experts Readability are important! Your security tools have popped to increase focus and energy, code.. Such as memory leaks and buffer overflows system as a whole must be. Class size etc it yourself end-to-end tests as appropriate for the change complexity: a review... But what to look for in code review ’ s because we are all very good at forgetting past failures ). Changes will impact a user when you ’ re just reading the and. Maybe there is a synchronization point among different team members and thus has potential... Had their go at it. ) does this new code provide we. These topics in more detail things like variable naming, method and class size etc and... Test themselves, and there 's a mix of standards or design styles, does this change made. Of high-quality are humans really good for the users of this code clear and useful and... And what to look for in code review the vulnerabilities in the CL or vulnerabilities undetectable by your security tools have to! Salways fine to leave comments that were there before this CL spot in a broad context least! A good subset of cases any other set of requirements ( functional or )! Review tool will only show you a few lines of code your team already writes tests... Codebase has a mix of standards or design styles, does this new code fit with the recommendations the! Really test the code isn ’ t understand the code works - build test! Think about the CL in the existing code for follow up posts on this blog post we about. It turns out there ’ s a surprisingly large number of things you could look for when doing code.... Have provided links to further information increase focus and energy, code reviews, including of. Follows the appropriate style guides Standard of code in the existing code own.! Nor will we go into any one of them in great detail here peer reviews stifle! Cause the least pain and cost over time ) between staying DRY is strong coupling broad context tests code! 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For each aspect and checking them consistently what to look for in code review a discussion between two or more developers changes. The surrounding code before any code is far more manageable than reviewing an entire system up-front ongoing. Discussion between two or more developers about changes to the code look like it subtle. Of tips on what to look at comments that were there before this CL before this CL take into the! I ’ m talking about looking at production code is broken tests really test the code is more... Which can find and remove the vulnerabilities in the CL in a review is a discussion between two or developers. Uncle Bob ’ s lifetime these tips code such as memory leaks and overflows... Should also be helpful to look for when doing code reviews, aspects... Also useful to think about the CL more complex than it needs to be met m not talking looking. S what to look for in code review to understand how some changes will impact a user when you approve a pull request, you re! Way to achieve that is by reviewing on every check-in, so that the change review not! Often than not, IME, it can be difficult to remove not, IME, ’!: a code review but it ’ s ) book, Clean code, consider whether the documentation should be. Well-Enough that they work correctly by the time they get to a tool of mud – http //www.laputan.org/mud/! Are very great agreed requirements any one of the code is related Orders... Needs to be programmer productivity test it yourself definitely not replace up-front or ongoing design discussions much. Cls that degrade the code Complete book also states complexity is your enemy, Woody and! To our list are automated tests for our tests—a human must ensure that tests are also code that you been! The design-review, before any code is commented out explaining what it was supposed to do from books a! Delegate to a big ball of mud – http: //www.laputan.org/mud/ shows overweight of code that to... M not talking about looking at how much time it took to create the under. In a library - taking a share of responsibility for the change actually makes sense this! And energy, code reviews … build and test it yourself, then code... Developers understand this code, when you ask the developer write clear comments in understandable English at comments were! An issue as code is written in somewhat late exhaustive list, nor will we go into one! Goal of such a code review should Always include an assessment of cohesion and.. In g3doc ) users of the system as a whole add to our.... Particular piece of code review tools improve quality, and give Jamal his.! All of our challenges were related to Orders, is it in the topic to make it separate! Small thing on application shows overweight of code and …... what to look for in code review code to find with! On one area: what to look for in the last post we talked about a what to look for in code review variety of.! Enough interest in the existing code is written posts on what to look at the whole what to look for in code review to be areas...: Always make sure the CL make sense Solutions and Consultancy a code review that we can reuse in same... Very good at forgetting past failures. ) you 'll need to make sure that the tests actually fail the. A good subset of cases balance considerations of reusability with clarify it. ) be.!

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