SNT 2.01.08-99 (2000). Technical Norms – Bamboo (in Spanish). Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings (First Revision). In their latest code RPS-2000 (2011) rubble stone masonry with cement mortar is allowed in three techniques (URM, CM, RM), all with a maximum of 2 stories regardless of the seismic zoning. 01(a) Coursed Random Rubble. ZMMYT-44 (1944). The Caucasus includes Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia. 5:13. doi: 10.3389/fbuil.2019.00013. IS:1905-1987 (2017). The stones used in this type of masonry The seismic rules apply to the design of buildings and structures at sites with seismicity of 7, 8, and 9 points, as defined on national seismic hazard maps that are based on the MSK-64 intensity scale (Medvedev and Sponheuer, 1969), although some countries have switched to a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis approach (Armenia, Kyrgyzstan). Suitability: Used for construction of ordinary buildings in hilly areas where a good variety of stones are cheaply available. It is further observed that types of stone masonry and stone properties are seldom clearly described in the codes. To achieve this, a research initiative is started by the name of SMARTnet, which stands for Seismic Methodologies for Applied Research and Testing of non-engineered Techniques. Tunisia and Libya have not yet developed national seismic codes up to date. IS:1893-1970 (1970). SNiP I-B.8-62 (1962). Ankara: Turkish Standard Institution. Tel Aviv: The Standards Institution of Israel. This concludes that school buildings in rubble stone masonry are not allowed to be built anywhere in India, although the word “should” weakens this statement. Front. “New Iranian seismic hazard zoning map for new edition of seismic code and its comparison with neighbor countries,” in Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, (Lisboa: Curran Associates, Inc). Beijing: State Construction Committee. IS:13828-1993 (2018). Inclusion of vertical reinforcements at critical connections is only required in India and Nepal. Since the very first 1962 edition it is stated that “in highly seismic areas, construction of a type which entails heavy debris and consequent loss of life and property, such as masonry—particularly mud masonry and rubble masonry, is best avoided.” For construction features and material specifications the seismic code refers from its earliest editions to IS:4326-1967 (1968) “Earthquake-Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings,” IS:1905-1961 (1962) “Masonry Walls” and to IS:1597(part 1)-1967 (1967) “Construction of Rubble Stone Masonry.” After the 1988 Bihar earthquake in Nepal near the Indian border, more attention was needed for low-strength brickwork and stone masonry. Gazzetta Ufficiale n.120 del 22 Maggio 1935, Rome. On top of that, it is emphasized that rubble stone, among other materials like pumice and adobe, “shall not be used as bearing wall material.” This is unfortunate, as reconnaissance reports show that rural one-story stone houses with traditional nominal reinforcements and light roofs behaved well under seismic motion, such as during the 2003 Bingöl (Ozcebe et al., 2003) and 2011 Van-Erciş earthquakes (Aydan et al., 2012). For instance, in Afghanistan most of the construction takes place in rural areas and with traditional techniques. Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures (Second Revision). There are two types of squared rubble masonry. There is also no agreement on the dimensions of openings (between 25 and 50% of wall length), minimum lengths of corner masonry (between 230 and 1,800 mm) and piers (between 450 and 1,550 mm), as well as methods and numbers of nominal reinforcements. Considered the cheapest and roughest type of stone masonry, random uncoursed rubble masonry is typically made up of stones pulled directly from the land with minimal efforts used to to prepare the corners of the stones before they are laid. Considered the cheapest and roughest type of stone masonry, random uncoursed rubble masonry is typically made up of stones pulled directly from the land with minimal efforts used to to prepare the corners of the stones before they are laid. (A) Unreinforced random rubble stone masonry with mud mortar. This includes even the highest seismic zone with a mapped peak ground acceleration (PGA) of around 0.4g, as outlined on the new seismic hazard map in the draft version of the updated (and about to be published) seismic code NBC NBC 105:2019 (2019). The review is not limited to the Himalayan region, but extended worldwide and includes all countries where stone masonry is still practiced today (whether it is allowed or not by their codes), as well as countries that had a rich culture of stone masonry in the past and which potentially could (or should) reintroduce the technique. E.g. Regulations for Design of Buildings and Engineering Structures in the Seismic Regions of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria (in Bulgarian). ABYYHY-68 (1968). 08SG618-4 (2008). DTU Règles-PS-69 (1970). No recent figures were found, but stone masonry is still abundantly practiced all over Afghanistan, such as in the seismically active Hindu Kush mountain range. Between 2007 and 2012 the Dutch NGO Smart Shelter Foundation (SSF) built earthquake-resistant schools in rubble stone masonry in Nepal, and these buildings have survived the 2015 Gorkha earthquakes without any significant damage. TBDY (2018). TJ 11-78 (1979). Further random rubble masonry is also divided into the following three types: The random rubble masonry in which stones are laid without forming courses is known as un coursed random rubble masonry. Kathmandu: Department of Urban Development and Building Construction. GB 50099-2011 (2010).
Code of Practice for Structural Use of Unreinforced Masonry (Third Revision). – The definition of the loadbearing masonry type “URM” may be perceived as misleading in earthquake engineering, as truly URM is not allowed in any of the codes. *Correspondence: Martijn Schildkamp, email@example.com, Front. ISC-303 (2017). It compares the main design requirements, such as overall length, width and height dimensions of the buildings; minimum and/or maximum thickness and dimensions of walls elements and openings; and specifications of main horizontal and vertical reinforcements. SNiP II-7-81∗ (1989). It is further noted that both codes (NBC 202 and 203) are nearly identical with regards to the main dimensions, such as building height, openings and reinforcements. Suitability: This masonry is used for heavy structures, architectural buildings, high piers and abutments of bridges. Coursed Rubble Masonry. Diario Oficial del Bicentenario 7 de abril de 2017, Lima. Mandatory Rules of Thumb Load Bearing Masonry, V2.RV7, reprint. Technical Standards for Construction, Decree from the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport of January 17, 2018 (in Italian). Like Nepal, the Indian codes are not mandatory from the state level. The length of a building between seismic gaps may not exceed 4 times its width, with a maximum spacing of cross-walls of 7 m. Dimensions of wall elements (l) next to openings (o) must conform to a ratio of l/h(o) > 0.5, which roughly amounts to 1,050 mm next to doors. Temporary Construction Guidelines for Earthquake Regions (in Turkish). However, one clause allows one-story buildings in rural settlements in zone 7 to be built with adobe, soil blocks and “other low-strength materials.” Possibly for these, the code has included the third strength-category for masonry (between 120 and 60 kPa). Regulation for Structures in Disaster Areas. In Jordan, a very common wall system for low-rise buildings consists of veneer-like cut stone blocks that are back-filled with plain concrete, and confined with horizontal and vertical reinforced concrete elements; but structurally this is a different type of construction than NRM (Al-Nimry et al., 2003). Random Rubble Masonry: This types of stone masonry involve arranging stones of irregular shapes and sizes to create an aesthetic-looking wall. Countries that have adopted Eurocode are, however, allowed to deviate from the regulations through their National Annexes. Based on these specifications, two case study buildings will be developed and presented for further detailed seismic analysis and calculations in the follow-up papers (comparisons of base shear seismic demand, to be checked with seismic capacity verifications). Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures. 1 May 2003 Bingol Earthquake Engineering Report. Guidelines for Earthquake Resistant Design, Construction and Retrofitting of Buildings in Afghanistan. Figure 2. In 2015 it was estimated that roughly 5% of the total building stock of Pakistan continues to be built with stone (Lodi, 2015), which is around 1.25 million units, mostly located in the Karakoram mountain range which is part of the Trans-Himalayan region. New Delhi: Bureau of Indian Standards. Therefore, it is surprising that of all articles this one was not copied into the Pakistani code. Although Albania has adopted Eurocode, these regulations are not yet implemented. Greek code for Seismic Resistant Structures – EAK2000, with Amendments (in Greek). In this form the stones used in the work are hammer or chisel-dressed. Built Environ 4:18. doi: 10.3389/fbuil.2018.00018. Brussels: European Committee for Standardization. Interestingly, rubble stone masonry of minimum 400mm thickness with the inclusion of through-stones is specifically mentioned in chapter 2109.10 of UBC-97. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. https://earthboundarchitecture.com/random-rubble-masonry-foundation It further highlights some overall observations of the national seismic and masonry codes that may need attention, for which suggestions and recommendations for improvement are given. IBC-2009 (2009). Nurtaev, B., Khakimov, S., and Miscola, A. Construction in Seismic Regions. This type of construction is the cheapest, but it requires more skill in construction. Conditional Rules for the Design of Civil and Industrial Constructions in Seismic Regions (in Romanian). M. Pantusheva (Bulgaria), Assist. IS:1905-1961 (1962). Seismic Technical Specification for Building Construction in Town and Village (in Chinese). Nepal requires concrete horizontal reinforcements at six levels (four beams or bands and stitches at two levels), China requires two beams and three to four rows of steel rod stitches (depending on story height), India only requires two beams when building on rock soil. Mortar shall not be leaner than 1:6 cement-sand ratio with a minimum compression strength of 3.0 N/mm2 at 28 days, according to the (unrevised) code NBC 109:1994 (2007) “Masonry Unreinforced.”. Bhutanese Architecture Guidelines. Along with that, school buildings in stone masonry are not allowed in any case due to certain design specifications for classrooms and requirements for indoor environment, as dictated in the “Code for Design of Schools” (GB 50099-2011, 2010). Ordinance RD-02-20-2 (2012). The first edition of the modern Iranian seismic code Standard 2800 (1987) made a clear division between engineered buildings (steel, concrete) and introduced a separate chapter for URM. PDS-1 (1974). New Delhi: Indian Standards Institution. Minsk: Interstate Council for Standardization. Part 1 General Provisions and Buildings (Fifth Revision). Design Codes (in English), plus amendment N 126-N (in Armenian). However, school designs that are made by qualified professionals may be approved by the local authorities, of which examples are published online by the Nepal Reconstruction Authority (NRA, 2020). PBO-64 (1964). The random rubble masonry in which stones are laid without forming courses is known as un coursed random rubble masonry. Cherkaoui, T., and El Hassani, A. These huge differences between basically all design requirements are raising questions about the completeness and correctness, as well as the reliability and actual value of the knowledge in this field. SN 8-57 (1958). Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 298 del 27 dicembre 1937-XVI, Rome. Interestingly, in the 1968 version ABYYHY-68 (1968) the building height was increased to 3 stories, but then again 7 years later this was drastically reduced to just one floor (ABYYHY-75, 1975). It is also important that codes clearly mention what stone types are allowed, with a clear difference between random rubble, and cut stones with brick-like dimensions. World Bank (2020). With seismic verifications, confined masonry is allowed up to 3 floors in zone IX and 4 floors in zone VIII. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Ashgabat: National Committee for Architectural and Construction Control under the Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan. (in English). Prof. K. Shrestha and MEng. The Indian Standard IS:1893 is the main seismic code that deals with the assessment of seismic loads, and which defines the seismic zones and design factors. After the devastating 2005 Kashmir earthquake, the building code was upgraded with a focus on seismic design of buildings, whilst dividing the whole country into 5 seismic zones (BCP-SP-07, 2007). Random Rubble Masonry in Cement mortar 1:5 in foundation (1Cu) Generally, to construct a rubble foundation, the materials required are rubble, cement, sand, and water. If it is made with a hammer and the thickness of the joint is not more than 12 mm, it is called second class random rubble masonry. Design Standards (in Tajik and Russian). All other rules apply for both houses and schools, although a recent guideline (not mandatory) for restauration and new construction of school buildings, recommends only reinforced concrete and steel frame structures (Applied Technology Council, 2017). For URM unfortunately, no further dimensions nor details are given, in contrast to a separate code that Morocco has published for earthen structures in seismic areas, as “this cultural heritage has great aesthetic quality and remarkable adaptation to climatic conditions” (RPCTerre-2011, 2013). (in Farsi). Roughly one-third of Armenia’s dwellings are in the rural and mountainous areas. Tehran: Building and Housing Research Center. The stones are all squared and properly dressed. a) Uncoursed random rubble b) Uncoursed squared rubble 17. – Type of masonry: Masonry is generally divided into 3 main types, being Unreinforced Masonry (URM), Confined Masonry (CM) and Reinforced Masonry (RM), as described by Silva et al. Types of Pointing. But on a positive note, school buildings in rubble stone masonry are currently not completely ruled out in Nepal. Bucharest: Central Research Institute for Design and Management in Construction. However, its section for stone only covers low-rise buildings in ashlar masonry with concrete floors, meaning that rubble stone masonry buildings (with wooden floors) are ruled out. Un-coursed Random Rubble Masonry. (2003). Unfortunately, this code has become very difficult to read and interpret, due to its many amendments and references to other codes outside the publication, such as for foundations, stone types and seismic provisions. New Delhi: Indian Standards Institution. However, in the 2004 amendment an extra clause is added to the separate chapter for “low-rise buildings with low-strength materials” such as adobe and wood: “For the construction of one-story buildings it is allowed to use natural stone with anti-seismic measures, developed according to special technical conditions agreed upon by the State Architects of the Republic of Uzbekistan.” Uzbekistan is working on a revision of their seismic code which is expected to be published in 2020. Eurocode 6 – Design of Masonry Structures - Part 1-1: General Rules for Reinforced and Unreinforced Masonry Structures. Before the 1974 trial version of the first Chinese seismic code, China mainly followed the Russian codes. Therefore, the authors propose a full assessment, validation, optimization and complementation of the existing knowledge, by means of the current state-of-the-art for calculating, testing and modeling. 10 Years After the 2005 Earthquake: Lessons Learned and Opportunities for Risk Reduction in Pakistan–Earthquake and Vulnerability of Pakistan and Risk Scenarios. Prof. S. Imanbekov (Kyrgyzstan), Prof. T. Dadayan and MEng. Rubble masonry is rough, uneven building stone set in mortar, but not laid in regular courses. This type of ashlar masonry is similar to rough tooled type except that there is chisel-drafted margin left rough on the face which is known as quarry faced. The highest Building Category E requires maximum provisions for strengthening, whereas category A requires the least. For type III structural loadbearing masonry with horizontal (steel net) reinforcements, no difference is made between bricks, dimensioned stones or rubble stones, for as long as a minimum wall strength requirement (120 kPa) is met. In this masonry the joints are not of uniform thickness. (2018). (2019). Most striking, however, are the huge differences between maximum allowed design accelerations, ranging from just 0.08g in Indian zone III versus 0.52g on medium soils in Georgia. P2-85 (1985). Chesneau, M. (1892). ASTM C615/C615M (2018). Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia n.89 of 18 December 2019, Belgrade. Random size and shape rocks A stone built wall pattern. It further states that “for above-ground walls, sawn and chipped wall stones of the correct form are used. Prof. N. Ahmad and S. Qazi (Pakistan), MEng. It has varying appearance. Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers. Table 1. Fact is that millions of people will continue to live in stone houses in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bhutan, Afghanistan, China, and likely in regions in Central Asia, the Middle East, Northern Africa and Europe as well. Read here Guide for Preparation of Internal Plaster. Bucharest: Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration. 1983-7-II (1983). Specification for Masonry Units – Part 6: Natural Stone Masonry Units (in English). RABC II-6.02-2006 (2011). Ankara: Ministry of Public Works and Settlement. Cairo: Housing and Building National Research Center. This is a superior variety of rubble masonry. However, the craft that goes into it is crucial. Masonry: Unreinforced, Reprint. Gazzetta Ufficiale n.95 del 22 Aprile 1909, Rome. “Inelastic cyclic response of stone-concrete bearing walls,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Concrete Technology for Developing Countries, (Amman: Musa Resheidat). In case of slant joints (as in random rubble masonry), the joint lines should meet at or near the junctions. In this code, flat rubble stone houses with wooden roofs are allowed up to one story in zone 7, with a maximum height of 3.6 m from ground level to halfway the gable. The first revisions in 20 years, although completed just before the devastating Gorkha earthquakes in 2015, were made available to the public 4 years later; in June 2019. SP 52.13330.2016 (2017). C. Zhong, and Assist. Figure 4. IS 1893 (part 1)-2002 (2002). With that, the code also excludes other interesting traditional techniques, such as “Bhatar” which consists of dry-stacked loadbearing stone walls with horizontal timber lacing (Carabbio et al., 2018), or “Dhajji Dewari,” wooden loadbearing frames with stone infill (Hicyilmaz, 2011). In the most unfavorable scenario (zone 3, soil profile IV) for masonry type III, a maximum building ratio of 1:3 (width versus length) is allowed, with a limitation of 2 stories height and 6 m spacing of cross-walls. In the first edition of IS:1893-1962 (1962) the country was divided into 7 seismic zones (0–VI), which was brought to 5 zones (I–V) after the Konya earthquake in 1967 (IS:1893-1970, 1970). Since this is type of masonry is very expensive, it is not commonly used throughout the whole thickness of the wall, except in works of great importance and strength. Algerian Earthquake Resistant Regulations RPA 99 – Version 2003 (in French). – Type of floors and roofs: Wooden floors and wood-trussed roofs, as opposed to concrete slabs. The technique is still explained in the masonry code RABC IV-13.01-96 (1996), in which also standardized sizes and wall thickness between 19 and 39 cm are mentioned for fully dressed stones, as mainly used today. In the codes of Peru, home of the extraordinary historic Inca stone structures, references to stone masonry were expected; also given the fact that Peru is one of very few countries in the world that has specific codes for “non-engineered techniques” like earth (E.080, 2017) and bamboo (E.100, 2012). IS:SP7-2016 (2016). The subsequent material code SNiP I-B.8-62 (1962) further explains that “flattened or broken stone” (rubble) is obtained from either direct splitting of boulders, or by sorting of fractions from blasted rock. It further categorizes two types of rubble stone; flat rubble stone, which is minimum 150 mm thick and has two sides that are roughly parallel, and irregular rubble stone. Lodi, S. H. (2015). Building Code for Quetta Municipality. Islamabad: Government of Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Earthquake-Resistant Construction. The masonry chapter is quite different from the Russian code and specifically allows rubble stone masonry. P100-1 (2013). Horizontal bands must be included at 3 to 4 levels (always roof and lintel, plus gable band on masonry gables, plus plinth beam on soft soils) and vertical bars only at critical wall connections (and in jambs when openings exceed the recommended dimensions). It mentioned a few specifics for irregular stone masonry, such as a maximum height of 2 stories, and that the masonry must be reinforced or confined. Site Investigation and Engineering Evaluation of the Van Earthquakes of October 23 and November 9, 2011. (C) Nominally reinforced random rubble stone masonry with cement mortar and brought to courses (all by courtesy of Smart Shelter Foundation). The squared rubble in masonry which hammer dressed stones are laid without making courses is called un coursed square rubble masonry. For houses on the other hand, China has published a “seismic technical specification” for construction of buildings in rural towns and villages (JGJ 161-2008, 2008). 1. Vertical joints are not plumbed, joints are filled and flushed. New Delhi: Bureau of Indian Standards. ASTM C568/C568M (2015). This current code is strongly influenced by Eurocode 8 but remains to be the main seismic code used in Bulgaria, as Eurocode 8 is only mandatory for structures of very high and national importance. It distinguishes three types of masonry: Ordinary (meaning Unreinforced), Confined and Reinforced. However, the first seismic code AzDTN 2.3-1 (2014) does not reflect this culture as the masonry chapter is an almost identical copy of the 1981 Russian seismic code, which only describes dimensioned stone. RPA-81 (1981). NBC 202:2015 (2015). Built Environ., 20 October 2020
NCSE-94 (1995). Standard Specification for Quartz-Based Dimension Stone. Until the 1970s all masonry was divided into four strength classes. Around 70% of the population lives in rural and mountainous areas, where the main construction type consists of self-built single-family houses in stone or mud-bricks (UNECE, 2011). KTP-2-78 (1978). Earthquake Resistant Construction. Seismic Rules for the Design of Housing and Socio-Cultural, Agricultural and Industrial Buildings (in Romanian). The philosophy includes an updated and structured research approach that specifically addresses vernacular and traditional construction techniques: “Non-Engineered 2.0.” This third paper is a valuable addition to collect, review and compare the design specifications for rubble stone masonry buildings worldwide. It is further recommended to structure the national codes for non-engineered techniques in such a way, that all the necessary information is compiled in just one document, with step-by-step explanations of the various procedures of design and execution of the technique. The horizontal rows of bricks can be replaced with continuous reinforced or unreinforced concrete bands. Solve this simple math problem and enter the result. Round (river) boulders are not recommended for stone masonry buildings in earthquake-prone areas. Random Rubble Masonry . NBC 105:2019 (2019). This raises questions about the completeness and correctness, as well as the reliability and actual value of the knowledge in this field. School buildings in rubble stone masonry with cement mortar in seismic areas: literature review of seismic codes, technical norms and practical manuals. The following paragraphs explain how the former Soviet countries deal with stone masonry today, except for Kazakhstan where this technique traditionally was not used. This work was supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) under grant number (B) 17H04592, as well as by the Dutch organization ArchiScienza, Fund for Architecture and Science, and the Dutch organization Prins Bernhard Cultuurfonds. Bucharest: Central Research Institute for Design and Management in Construction. suppose you have to construct a wall of length=4m,breadth=1m,&height=2m. Even better would have been the inclusion of IS.13828 for low-strength masonry, as stone is still widely used in the northern parts of the country, especially in Gilgit-Baltistan province. Houses are not permitted in category E (zone V), and “should preferably be avoided” in category D (zone IV). Building Code of Pakistan. RABC 20.04_ (2020). Turkey has a long and rich history of construction using stone masonry, such as fully loadbearing walls with wood-lacing, or a system of braced wooden frames with stone-infill called “hımış.” The country is frequently subjected to destructive earthquakes. An intermediate method is coursed rubble walling, for … Thickness of joints is uniform, which does not exceed 6mm. Most countries bordering or located on the Arabian Plate are either subject to relatively low seismicity levels, or they mainly follow international seismic codes. 2 & 3, Reaffirmed 2018. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. After the 1954 Chlef earthquake, a provisional set of recommendations was published (AS55, 1955) which described the use of Confined Masonry for seismic areas, but without materialization of the masonry units. Satisfactory bond can be obtained in this type of stone masonry. Floors must be made of wooden members, the roof structure must be properly anchored to the walls and made as stiff as possible. Roughly half the population lives in rural areas (World Bank, 2020), but no recent data was found on construction practices in those regions. In the seismic codes this is reflected as follows. Medvedev, S., and Sponheuer, W. (1969). NBE-FL-90 (1991). The second edition ZMMYT-44 (1944) allowed two-story uncut rubble stone buildings with a maximum length of 12m and wall thickness at ground floor of 60 cm and first floor of 35cm, along with nominal required reinforcements. The first Pakistan Building Code BCP-86 (1986) was presented as an “advisory document” and not enforced as a mandatory requirement. Regio Decreto Legge n. 2105 del 22/11/1937 (in Italian). This leaves 7 countries where the use of rubble stone masonry for buildings in highly seismic areas is still practiced and specifically allowed, for which the main requirements and design specifications are summarized in Table 1. OSDC-2013 (2013). Still, lower-strength masonry of category 2 must meet a minimum “ultimate axial tensile strength of 120 kPa,” which may be difficult to determine (or understand) in the rural areas. Nearly 325 national seismic and masonry codes from all over the world, divided over 5 different continents, have been analyzed and compared. Boletín Oficial del Estado n.30, February 4 of 1969, Madrid. Headers of one coursed height are placed at certain intervals. Moscow: State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR for Construction. KMK 2.01.03-96 (2004). Int. “Portuguese studies on earthquake resistant structures,” in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, (Tokyo: Gakujutsu Bunken Fukuy-Rai). Turkmenistan has a high seismic risk at its border with Iran. ABYYHY-75 (1975). RS-89/2019 (2019). For all the above reasons, schools in China are currently predominantly constructed with reinforced concrete frames.
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