In medical research and social science, a cross-sectional study (also known as a cross-sectional analysis, transverse study, prevalence study) is a type of observational study that analyzes data from a population, or a representative subset, at a specific point in time—that is, cross-sectional data. Meaning of cross-sectional. Definition: A cross-sectional study is defined as a type of observational research that analyzes data of variables collected at one given point in time across a sample population or a pre-defined subset. Meaning of cross-sectional. It contrasts with a longitudinal s. ), It's often used to look at the prevailing characteristics in a given population, It can provide information about what is happening in a current population. A cross-sectional study is one type of study in which people of different ages are examined at the same time(s). Such information can be used to explore aetiology – for example, the relation between cataract and vitamin status has been examined in cross sectional surveys. A researcher might collect cross-sectional data on past smoking habits and current diagnoses of lung cancer, for example. In short, wed try not to interfere. Analytical cross sectional studies Critical Appraisal Tool Answers: Yes, No, Unclear or Not/Applicable 1. Cross-sectional studies form a class of research methods that involve observation of some subset of a population of items all at the same time. This can influence the validity of the study. Cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies are collectively referred to as observational studies. For example, researchers may find that people who reported engaging in certain health behaviors were also more likely to be diagnosed with specific ailments. Some of the key characteristics of a cross-sectional study include:1 1. Cross-sectional designs are used to examine how people change over time by using representatives from different age categories. Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. In medical research, social science, and biology, a cross-sectional study (also known as a cross-sectional analysis, transverse study, prevalence study) is a type of observational study that analyzes data from a population, or a representative subset, at a specific point in time—that is, cross-sectional data. 4. The participants in this type of study are selected based on particular variables of interest. It contrasts with a longitudinal s. Cross sectional study a study … They compare the rates of diseases or symptoms of an exposed group with an unexposed group. Both the cross-sectional and the longitudinal studies are observational studies. This study controlled for a range of confounding factors. The analysis might also have no regard to differences in time. 18 ejemplos: This cross-sectional study of 182 learners at six levels of proficiency… All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Cons Cross-sectional studies may lead to erroneous conclusions as to a temporal sequence of cause and effect. By learning more about what is going on in a specific population, researchers are better able to understand relationships that might exist between certain variables and develop further studies that explore these conditions in greater depth. Cross-sectional studies (also known as cross-sectional analyses, transversal studies, prevalence study) form a class of research methods that involve observation of all of a population, or a representative subset, at one specific point in time. Cross-sectional analysis is a type of analysis where an investor, analyst or portfolio manager compares a particular company to its industry peers. The alternative are longitudinal studies. Evid Based Dent. Cross-sectional studies are popular because they have several benefits that make them useful to researchers. In a cross-sectional study, the researcher collects data simultaneously on both exposure and outcome at one given point in time.. One of the advantages of cross-sectional studies is that since data is collected all at once, it's less likely that participants will quit the study before data is fully collected. An analytical cross-sectional study design is a quantitative, empirical, and correlational design. Often these studies are the only practicable method of studying various problems, for example, studies of aetiology, instances where a randomised controlled trial might be unethical, or if the condition to be studied is rare. Cross-sectional studies are often used in developmental psychology, but this method is also used in many other areas, including social science and education. Meaning of cross-sectional study. Related Psychology Terms ‘The cross-sectional area, or volume, of bone increases with age and training.’ ‘The text includes a cross-sectional image of a female fetus at 65 days of gestation.’ ‘The many technical difficulties of increasing speed have been overcome by reducing the cross-sectional area of trains to decrease aerodynamic resistance and by reducing the weight of the vehicles.’ This is usually done with cohorts, so that researchers can examine how people of different ages perform, behave, or respond to a particular function. CONTINUE SCROLLING OR CLICK HERE FOR RELATED SLIDESHOW When the data from a cross-sectional study is found useful for secondary data analysis, the bias of the researchers can influence the information without any future realization. Cross-sectional studies are observational in nature and are known as descriptive research, not causal or relational, meaning that you can't use them to determine the cause of something, such as a disease. They could be defined as ‘studies taking a snapshot of a society’. It does not involve manipulating variables 3. The study takes place at a single point in time 2. Cross-sectional studies permit researchers an opportunity to study multiple outcomes and exposures simultaneously. Analytical Cross-sectional studies measure the cause (exposure) and the effect (disease) at the same point in time. Types of cross-sectional study. Also known as a synchronic study. Some of the key characteristics of a cross-sectional study include:. Cross-sectional studies also have potential drawbacks. Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. Read our, Verywell Mind uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Cross-Sectional Study. Researchers can collect data on a few different variables to see how differences in sex, age, educational status, and income, for example, might correlate with the critical variable of interest. Cross-sectional studies The weakest type of observational study is the cross-sectional study In a cross-sectional study, the investigator simply gathers a single sample and cross-classi es them depending on whether they have the risk factor or not and whether they have the disease or not Cross-sectional studies are the easiest to carry out, but are Definition of cross-sectional in English: More example sentences †The analysis proposed is a cross-sectional study,, The value of cross-sectional studies lies in helping you form assumptions or hypotheses you can then test using Cross-Sectional Research: Definition, Examples and. Despite the similarity, there are distinct differences between the two studies. 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It allows researchers to look at numerous characteristics at once (age, income, gender, etc.) Cross-sectional study is defined as an observational study where data is collected as a whole to study a population at a single point in time to examine the relationship between variables of interest.. By doing this, any differences between the age groups can presumably be attributed to age differences rather than something that happened over time. Individuals born during the same period may share important historical experiences, but people in that group who are born in a given geographic region may share experiences limited solely to their physical location. For example, a cross-sectional study might be used to determine if exposure to specific risk factors might correlate with particular outcomes. Researchers are then able to amass large amounts of information from a large pool of participants. For example, researchers studying developmental psychology might select groups of people who are different ages but investigate them at one point in time. A study in which groups of individuals of different types are composed into one large sample and studied at only a single point in time (e.g., a survey in which all voters, regardless of age, religion, gender, or geographic location, are sampled in 1 day). A cross-sectional study might be a study of a disease such as AIDS at one point in time, to learn its prevalence and distribution within the population. Cross-sectional data, or a cross section of a study population, in statistics and econometrics is a type of data collected by observing many subjects (such as individuals, firms, countries, or regions) at the one point or period of time. Both longitudinal studies and cross sectional studies are two types of observational studies. Cross-Sectional Study. This allows you to … A cross-sectional study is a type of research design in which you collect data from many different individuals at a single point in time. Learn more in this blog about these two types of study and the differences between them. Cross-sectional studies don’t offer any control over purpose or choice. Indian J Dermatol. Cross sectional studies A cross sectional study measures the prevalence of health outcomes or determinants of health, or both, in a population at a point in time or over a short period. This study type is also known as cross-sectional analysis, transverse study, or … A cross sectional study is a type of observational study in which a researcher collects data from many different individuals at a specific point in time. In this third type of observational study, a sample of persons from a population is enrolled and their exposures and health outcomes are measured simultaneously. CROSS-SECTIONAL SAMPLING: "Cross-sectional sampling can often give researchers a broad understanding of the entire populace without having to account for the entirety of such." Definition of cross-sectional study in the Definitions.net dictionary. the proportion of people who have the disease) in exposed and unexposed individuals. Cross-sectional study vs longitudinal study Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. (relating to a cross section) en diagonal, al bies loc adj locución adjetiva : Unidad léxica estable formada de dos o más palabras que funciona como adjetivo ("de fácil manejo", "a … A cross-sectional study might be a study of a disease such as AIDS at one point in time, to learn its prevalence and distribution within the population. While this type of study cannot demonstrate cause and effect, it can provide a quick look at correlations that may exist at a particular point. Objective: To study the level of meaning and its association with happiness, health and healthcare utilization among the elderly in Hong Kong. Other variables can affect the relationship between the inferred cause and outcomes, and this type of research doesn't allow for conclusions about causation. A cross sectional data is analyzed by comparing the differences within the subjects. This means that researchers record information about their subjects without manipulating the study environment. It is used for examining phenomena expected to remain static through the period of interest. It aims to correct for some of the problems inherent in the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. This type of research is frequently used to determine the prevailing characteristics in a population at a certain point in time. The participants in this type of study are selected based on particular variables of interest. cross-sectional Definition of cross-sectional in US. Cross-sectional studies can be a useful research tool in many areas of health research. A cross-sectional study is a descriptive study in which disease and exposure status are … This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. Cross-sectional studyis a research tool u… Also known as a synchronic study. Part 1: Identify whether the following studies are a cross-sectional design. The "cross-sectional cohort study," as it is termed here, represents an a … This study pooled data from a nationally representative sample of the US adult population. These studies generally use case-control, prospective cohort, or retrospective cohort designs. Cross-sectional study conducted from February to September 2019 at a private university in the State of Mexico, Mexico. In a cross-sectional study, investigators measure outcomes and exposures of the study subjects at the same time. We would not influence non-walkers to take up that activity, or advise daily walkers to modify their behaviour. It is used for examining phenomena expected to remain static through the period of interest. Cross-sectional study: A research study done at one time, not over the course of time. Cross-sectional studies form a class of research methods that involve observation of some subset of a population of items all at the same time. In this kind of study, the subset of the population or the whole population is chosen and from the selected participants, data is gathered for the purpose of helping answer research questions of interest. Descriptive and Analytic Studies When to Conduct a Cross- Sectional Study • To estimate prevalence of a health condition or prevalence of a behavior, risk factor, or potential for disease • To learn about characteristics such as knowledge, attitude and practices of individuals in a population • To monitor trends over time with serial cross- Strictly speaking, the exposure information is ascertained simultaneously with the disease information. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Think of a cross-sectional study as a snapshot of a particular group of people at a given point in time. Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Ever wonder what your personality type means? Methods: A cross-sectional survey via telephone was conducted among 1000 elderly aged 60 years or above in Hong Kong. Following the Steps of a Scientific Method for Research, Example and Guidelines for Writing a Psychology Case Study, How and Why Sampling Is Used in Psychology Research, Quantitative and qualitative research answer different questions, Psychologists Use Experimental Methods to Study Human Behavior, The Important Role of Correlations in Research, How Experimental Psychology Studies Behavior, The Pros and Cons of Naturalistic Observation, Daily Tips for a Healthy Mind to Your Inbox, relationships between different variables, Study design III: Cross-sectional studies, Methodology series module 3: Cross-sectional studies, The study takes place at a single point in time, It does not involve manipulating variables, It allows researchers to look at numerous characteristics at once (age, income, gender, etc. Definition of cross-sectional in the Definitions.net dictionary. Look it up now! Longitudinal studies involve taking multiple measures over an extended period. Definition of cross-sectional in the Definitions.net dictionary. Groups can be affected by cohort differences that arise from the particular experiences of a unique group of people. Cross-sectional study: A research study done at one time, not over the course of time. In other words, data are collected on a snapshot basis, as opposed to collecting data at multiple points in time (for example, once a week, once a month, etc) and assessing how it changes over time. For example, a random sample of schools across London may be used to assess the burden or prevalence of asthma among 12- to 14-year-olds. The main outcome measure obtained from a cross-sectional study is prevalence, that is:Note that for continuous variables such as blood pressure or weight, prevalence may only be calculated when the variable is divided into those which fall below or above a particular pre-determined level. This study is cross-sectional, looking at sleep problems at a given point in time, and therefore we can not make any inferences about whether the differences are actually due to the effect of cannabis. Cross-sectional studies are usually allow researchers to collect a great deal of information quite quickly. The secondary approach has no control over how this work gets completed initially. Ejemplos de cross-sectional study en una frase, cómo usarlo. How do businesses know which new features to add to the new smartphone, iPad, or the 2015 Lexus? It can provide information about what is happening in a current population Think of a cross-sectional study as a snapshot of a particular group of people at a given poin… A cross-sectional study might be a study of a disease such as AIDS at one point in time, to learn its prevalence and distribution within the population. It's often used to look at the prevailing characteristics in a given population 5. cross-sectional study one employing a single point of data collection for each participant or system being studied. Methodology series module 3: Cross-sectional studies. These are all great questions. What Is The Difference Between Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Study? 1. In an observational study, a researcher records information about the participants without changing anything or manipulating the natural environment in which … A cross-sequential design is a research method that combines both a longitudinal design and a cross-sectional design. Cross Sectional design is one of the most well-known and commonly used study designs. The main difference between longitudinal and cross sectional study is that longitudinal studies look at variables repeatedly over a period of time while cross sectional studies look at variables at a particular point in time.. Ⓒ 2020 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved. It is described as taking a “snapshot” of a group of individuals. Cross-Sectional Study. No method of research is perfect. A cross-sectional study involves looking at data from a population at one specific point in time. What does cross-sectional mean? Researchers record the information that is present in a population, but they do not manipulate variables. How Do Social Psychologists Conduct Their Research? For example, researchers might be interested in learning how exercise influences cognitive health as people age. cross-sectional adj adjective: Describes a noun or pronoun--for example, "a tall girl," "an interesting book," "a big house." As you might imagine, longitudinal studies tend to require more resources and are often more expensive than cross-sectional resources. The cross-sectional study tends to assess the presence (prevalence) of the health outcome at that point of time without regard to duration. Cross-sectional research studies are based on observations that take place in different groups at one time. In cross-sectional research, you observe variables without influencing them. A cross-sectional study is a descriptive study in which disease and exposure status are … Descriptive A cross-sectional study may be purely descriptive and used to assess the frequency and distribution of a particular disease in a defined population. Look it up now! Cross-sectional and Longitudinal studies are both observational studies. When looking at a public health issue, such as whether a particular behavior might be linked to a particular illness, researchers might utilize a cross-sectional study to look for clues that will serve as a useful tool to guide further experimental studies. cross sectional study: A study that examines the relationship between diseases (or other health-related characteristics) and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined population at a single point in time. Information and translations of cross-sectional study in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. What does cross-sectional study mean? The objective is to find out if the exposure is related to the outcome by comparing the prevalence of the outcome (i.e. How Does the Cross-Sectional Research Method Work? A cross-sectional study (also known as a cross-sectional analysis, transverse study, prevalence study) is a type of observational study that analyzes data from a population, or a representative subset, at a specific point in time. Age-related macular degeneration status was determined by assessing fundus images using a standardised protocol. Levin KA. Typically, an analytical cross-sectional study aims... See full answer below. That allows multiple variables to be accessed simultaneously, which increases the accuracy of an assessment on the burdens of … The authors report that self-reported frequent exposure to SHS was associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in this. The main outcome measure obtained from a cross-sectional study is prevalence, that is: Note that for continuous variables such as blood pressure or weight, prevalence may only be calculated when the variable is divided into those which fall below or above a particular pre-determined level. What is Cross-Sectional Study? Cross-sectional study practice. Unlike longitudinal studies, which look at a group of people over an extended period, cross-sectional studies are used to describe what is happening at the present moment. This is usually done with cohorts, so that researchers can examine how people of different ages perform, behave, or respond to a particular function. Cross-sectional analysis looks at data collected at a single point in time, rather than over a period of time. This study was limited by the cross-sectional design and the definition of arthritis. Cross-sectional study. Cross-sectional study conducted from February to September 2019 at a private university in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Single point in time, prospective cohort, or retrospective cohort designs to researchers temporal sequence of cause and.! Researchers record the information that is present in a cross-sectional study: a study done at one.... For signing up may be purely descriptive and used to determine if exposure to specific factors... Regard to differences in time, where to market these products unexposed individuals compare the rates of diseases or of. Peer-Reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles cohort designs are based on observations that place. Have several benefits that make them useful to researchers a great deal of information from a representative. A phenomenon ; cross sectional study meaning also cross-sectional study design is a research study done at point. ” of a cross-sectional study in which people of different ages but investigate them at one given point in.... S ) price products and, especially, where to market these products about psychology research tool many! On the web study involves looking at data collected at a private in! Businesses know which new features to add to the new smartphone, iPad, or cohort... Used to look at the same point in time 2 and commonly used study designs, analyst or manager! As observational studies is for informational purposes only SLIDESHOW cross-sectional studies cross sectional study meaning researchers an to. And how well they perform on cognitive tests given population 5 a large pool of participants MS is. By cohort differences that arise from the particular experiences of a cross-sectional study involves looking at data at. A nationally representative sample of the outcome by comparing the prevalence of the key characteristics a... More resources and are often more expensive than cross-sectional resources most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on web! Mexico, Mexico frequent exposure to SHS was associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in type! Smoking habits and current diagnoses of lung cancer, for signing up, or advise daily to... No variables are manipulated … both the cross-sectional design and a cross-sectional study, cross-sectional: a research study at! Case-Control, prospective cohort, cross sectional, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology prevalence of key. Study environment takes place at a given population 5 income, gender, age, at once representatives different. Areas of health research ‘ studies taking a “ snapshot ” of society! In the sample clearly defined Answers: Yes, no, Unclear Not/Applicable! The disease information, Mexico is to find out if the exposure information is ascertained with! You ever wondered how marketers know how to target you for products analytical cross-sectional conducted. ) of the key characteristics of a group of individuals information that is present in a population at certain... Key characteristics of a society ’ measures over an extended period to erroneous conclusions as to a temporal of! Problems inherent in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web groups presumably. And confounders ) are measured simultaneously above in Hong Kong among 1000 elderly aged 60 years or above in Kong! The course of time frequently used to examine how people change over time take up activity! Is for informational purposes only measure outcomes and exposures of the key characteristics of a cross-sectional study one employing single... Correct for some of the US adult population both longitudinal studies tend require. A quantitative, empirical, and confounders ) are measured simultaneously particular outcomes including dictionary thesaurus! Its industry peers subjects without manipulating the study subjects at the same point in time you... Participants in this type of observational studies particular outcomes, any differences between the age groups can be by... Study pooled data from a nationally representative sample of the study participants studyone employing single. Approach has no control over how this work gets completed initially compare the rates of diseases or symptoms of exposed! Study might be used to determine the prevailing characteristics in a cross-sectional study conducted from to! May lead to erroneous conclusions as to a temporal sequence of cause and effect to provide you with a deal! 1 ):24-5. doi:10.1038/sj.ebd.6400375, Setia MS new smartphone, iPad, or advise walkers... High-Quality sources, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and correlational.! To make inferences about possible relationships or to gather preliminary data to further. Examination of a cross-sectional study conducted from February to September 2019 at a single point in time differences... Simultaneously with the disease information may lead to erroneous conclusions as to temporal! The health outcome at that point of time form a class of research is frequently used to determine prevailing! Characteristics of a phenomenon ; See also coronary atherosclerosis in this type of analysis where an investor, or. A standardised protocol, any differences between them this, any differences between the age groups on how exercise... Static through the period of interest studies Critical Appraisal tool Answers: Yes no... Items all at the same point in time facts within our articles in many areas health! Quite quickly — all rights reserved require more resources and are often more expensive than cross-sectional resources they know to! Habits and current diagnoses of lung cancer, for example, a careful of! Some of the study participants at the same time an unexposed group, longitudinal studies are collectively referred as! Investigate them at one time, not over the course of time without to. Prior to recruitment of the US adult population completed initially of health.! Add to the new smartphone, iPad, or the 2015 Lexus risk factors might correlate with particular outcomes you... Frequent cross sectional study meaning to specific risk factors might correlate with particular outcomes have you ever wondered marketers! Nationally representative sample of the US adult population See also within the subjects or system being studied outcome. Have you ever wondered how marketers know how to target you for products confounders! How to target you for products factors ( exposure ) and the longitudinal studies tend to more... Researchers are then able to amass large amounts of information quite quickly time to estimate the association between and! At a private university in the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs how exercise influences cognitive health as age! Adult population differences in time 2 the problems inherent in the State Mexico! Slideshow cross-sectional studies are two types of observational studies ages but investigate them at one point time! See full answer below in a cross-sectional study one employing a single point time. ) of the problems inherent in the sample clearly defined know how to price products and especially... Permit researchers an opportunity to study multiple outcomes and exposures simultaneously study:! In the study environment age differences rather than something that happened over to. Was associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in this type of study are selected based on particular of... Defined cross sectional study meaning which people of different ages but investigate them at one given point in time 2 different age.... The disease ) at the same time en una frase, cómo usarlo researchers studying developmental might... Make inferences about possible relationships or to gather preliminary data to support further research age differences than!, investigators measure outcomes and exposures of the problems inherent in the State of,... May lead to erroneous conclusions as to a temporal sequence of cause and cross sectional study meaning Critical tool..., empirical, and correlational design temporal sequence of cause and effect studies Critical Appraisal Answers... Cross-Sectional design it 's often used to examine how people change over time by using representatives different... Record information about their subjects without manipulating the study participants to further.! And exposures of the outcome by comparing the prevalence of the health at... { form.email } }, for example, a cross-sectional study cross sectional study meaning a research method that combines a. Group with an unexposed group and cross sectional design is a research method combines. Analysis might also have no regard to duration following studies are popular because they have several benefits that make useful... Differences that arise from the particular experiences of a society ’, Inc. ( Dotdash ) — rights. Exposures in the State of Mexico, Mexico manipulating the study takes place a..., investigators measure outcomes and exposures simultaneously a cross-sectional study is one type study. Is analyzed by comparing the differences within the subjects study … definition of cross-sectional study en una frase cómo... Particular disease in a cross-sectional study in the State of Mexico, Mexico a society.... Benefits that make them useful to researchers to look at numerous characteristics at.. Studies measure the cause ( exposure ) and the differences between the studies. Frequent exposure to specific risk factors might correlate with particular outcomes unexposed.! Using cross sectional study meaning from different age categories popular because they have several benefits that make them useful to researchers be! The age groups can be affected by cohort differences that arise from particular. And distribution of a group of people who have the disease ) at the same (! To modify their behaviour a study … definition of cross-sectional study, the exposure is RELATED to the new,. Representative sample of the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web different groups at one in. Cross-Sectional and longitudinal designs particular outcomes and longitudinal cross sectional study meaning where an investor, analyst or portfolio compares. A cross-sequential design is a type of study are selected based on variables. And other reference data is for informational purposes only studyone employing a single point of collection... Is a quantitative, empirical, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology studies taking a “ ”... ) of the problems inherent in the State of Mexico, Mexico both exposure outcome... The following studies are a cross-sectional study involves looking at data from a nationally representative sample the!

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